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This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the various systems of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostatic mechanisms. The subject provides the basic knowledge required to understand the various disciplines of pharmacy.
Upon completion of this course the student should be able to
1. Explain the gross morphology, structure and functions of various organs of the human body.
2. Describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances.
3. Identify the various tissues and organs of different systems of human body.
4. Perform the various experiments related to special senses and nervous system.
5. Appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system
Module I: Introduction to human body
Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.
Cellular level of organization Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent b) Paracrine c) Synaptic d) Endocrine
Tissue level of organization Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.
Module II: Integumentary system
Structure and functions of skin
Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system. Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction
Structural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its articulation
Module III: Body fluids and blood
Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoeisis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticulo endothelial system.
Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system
Module IV: Peripheral nervous system
Classification of peripheral nervous system:
Structure and functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.
Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.
Module V: Cardiovascular system
Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.
1. Essentials of Medical Physiology by K. Sembulingam and P. Sembulingam. Jaypee brothers medical publishers, New Delhi.
2. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness by Kathleen J.W. Wilson, Churchill Livingstone, New York
3. Physiological basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor. Williams & Wilkins
4. Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C,Guyton andJohn.E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.
5. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Tortora Grabowski. Palmetto, GA, U.S.A.