Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Theory 1

Teacher

Ladi Alik kumar

Category

Core Courses

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Scope: The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope,
classification of crude drugs, their identification and evaluation, phytochemicals
present in them and their medicinal properties.
Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able
1. to know the techniques in the cultivation and production of crude drugs
2. to know the crude drugs, their uses and chemical nature
3. know the evaluation techniques for the herbal drugs
4. to carry out the microscopic and morphological evaluation of crude drugs

Course Content:
UNIT-I 10 Hours
Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
(a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
(b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
(c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums
and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).
Classification of drugs:
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and
sero taxonomical classification of drugs
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic,
physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method,
leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with
camera lucida.
UNIT-II 10 Hours
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin:
Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.
Plant hormones and their applications.
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants
Conservation of medicinal plants
UNIT-III 07 Hours
Plant tissue culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional
requirements, growth and their maintenance.
Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Edible vaccines
UNIT IV 10 Hours
Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely,
Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.
Introduction to secondary metabolites:
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids,
Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins
UNIT V 08 Hours
Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin
containing following drugs
Plant Products:
Fibers - Cotton, Jute, Hemp
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens
Primary metabolites:
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation,
evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as
Pharmaceutical Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites:
Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey
Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain,
serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
Lipids (Waxes, fats, fixed oils) : Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax
Marine Drugs:
Novel medicinal agents from marine sources

References:

Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
1. W.C.Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders & Co.,
London, 2009.
2. Tyler, V.E., Brady, L.R. and Robbers, J.E., Pharmacognosy, 9th Edn., Lea and
Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988.
3. Text Book of Pharmacognosy by T.E. Wallis
4. Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers &
Distribution, New Delhi.
5. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae (2007), 37th
Edition, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.
6. Herbal drug industry by R.D. Choudhary (1996), Ist Edn, Eastern Publisher, New
Delhi.
7. Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Dr.SH.Ansari, IInd edition, Birla publications, New
Delhi, 2007
8. Practical Pharmacognosy: C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae
9. Anatomy of Crude Drugs byM.A. Iyengar

Session 1: Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy

Unit 1-Pharmacognosy(C-1 Introduction)

Session 2: Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture Organized drugs, unorganized drugs

Unit 1-Pharmacognosy(C-2 Source of drugs)

Session 3: Classification of drugs: Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero taxonomical classification of drugs

Unit 1-Pharmacognosy(C-3 Classification of crude drugs)

Session 4:Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical,

Unit 1-Pharmacognosy(C-4 Adulteration of crude drug)

 Session 5: chemical and biological methods and properties.

Session 6:Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin

Unit 2-Pharmacognosy(cultivation)

Session 7: Collection of drugs of natural origin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TxDwSnc0WVY

Session 8:Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.

Unit 2-Pharmacognosy(Factors affecting cultivation)

Session 9:Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mtZ7CF3tLFI

Session 10:Plant hormones and their applications.

Unit 2-Pharmacognosy(Plant hormones)

Session 11:Plant hormones- Auxins and gibberllins

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZ5tU45Ti_g

Session 12:Plant hormones- Cytokinin, Ethylene Ansisic acid

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Ji3g4yp4VE

Session 13: Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants Conservation of medicinal plants

Unit 2-Pharmacognosy (Polyploidy. Mutation)

Session 14:  hybridization with reference to medicinal plants Conservation of medicinal plants

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71MSFPZ53zk

Session 15: Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance.

Unit 3-Pharmacognosy(plant tissue culture)

Session 16:  types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LAdmQS8bsqg

Session 17:  types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7CDfc8Lxd0

Session 18  : Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Edible vaccines

Unit 3-Pharmacognosy(Application of plant tissue culture)

Session 19  : Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Edible vaccines

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpwhWLBHlOA

Session 20:Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine: Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.

Unit 4-Pharmacognosy(ayurveda, unani, sidha)

Session 21:Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Y92SeKigJU

Session 22:Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcABmzwgiHo

Session 23: Chinese systems of medicine.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6D9matCi3LM

Session 24:Introduction to secondary metabolites: Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins

Unit 4-Pharmacognosy(ayurveda, unani, sidha)

Session 25:Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufG3UUUHr0M

Session 26:Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing following drugs Plant Products: Fibers - Cotton, Jute, Hemp Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens

Unit 5-Pharmacognosy(Fibres)

Session 27:Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOGX23pRlNs

Session 28: Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).

Unit 5-Pharmacognosy (Protein and Enzymes)

Session 29: Lipids (Waxes, fats, fixed oils) : Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax

Unit 5-Pharmacognosy(oils)

Session 30: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZzEn2BfxtY

Our Main Teachers

I am ladi alik kumar working as an asst professor in schoole of  Pharmacy, Centurion University, rayagada campus. I am complete my M.Pharm at Gayatri institute of science and technology, Gunupur . Thenever i had worked as an Production asst at M/S Aurobindo Pharma , Vizag