Scope: The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope,
classification of crude drugs, their identification and evaluation, phytochemicals
present in them and their medicinal properties.
Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able
1. to know the techniques in the cultivation and production of crude drugs
2. to know the crude drugs, their uses and chemical nature
3. know the evaluation techniques for the herbal drugs
4. to carry out the microscopic and morphological evaluation of crude drugs
UNIT-I 10 Hours
Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
(a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
(b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
(c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums
and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).
Classification of drugs:
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and
sero taxonomical classification of drugs
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic,
physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method,
leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with
UNIT-II 10 Hours
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin:
Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.
Plant hormones and their applications.
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants
Conservation of medicinal plants
UNIT-III 07 Hours
Plant tissue culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional
requirements, growth and their maintenance.
Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Edible vaccines
UNIT IV 10 Hours
Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely,
Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.
Introduction to secondary metabolites:
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids,
Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins
UNIT V 08 Hours
Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin
containing following drugs
Fibers - Cotton, Jute, Hemp
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation,
evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as
Pharmaceutical Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites:
Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey
Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain,
serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
Lipids (Waxes, fats, fixed oils) : Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax
Novel medicinal agents from marine sources
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
1. W.C.Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders & Co.,
2. Tyler, V.E., Brady, L.R. and Robbers, J.E., Pharmacognosy, 9th Edn., Lea and
Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988.
3. Text Book of Pharmacognosy by T.E. Wallis
4. Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers &
Distribution, New Delhi.
5. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae (2007), 37th
Edition, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.
6. Herbal drug industry by R.D. Choudhary (1996), Ist Edn, Eastern Publisher, New
7. Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Dr.SH.Ansari, IInd edition, Birla publications, New
8. Practical Pharmacognosy: C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae
9. Anatomy of Crude Drugs byM.A. Iyengar