Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Teacher

Dr. Shraban Kumar Sahoo

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Code(Credit) : CUTM:469 (3-2-1)

Course Objectives

To study and compare between various theories of atomic structure.
To know the most common structure and hybridization observed for different compounds.
To use periodic trend to understand the chemistry of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, transition as well as inner transition elements.

Learning Outcomes

The student will acquire knowledge in the structure, bonding, and hybridisation of different compounds, their periodic properties and the quantum mechanical aspect.

Course Syllabus

Course Outline
Module-I
Atomic structure-I

Bohr’s theory, its limitations and atomic spectrum of hydrogen atom, Wave mechanics: de Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and its significance, Schrodinger’s wave equation, significance of Ψ and Ψ2.
Assignment-1: Photoelectric Effect
Assigment-2: Sommerfeld Extension of the Bohr Theory
Practice-1: Determine the atomic configuration and bonding ability (Vlab)
Practice-2: Rutherford’s gold foil experiments
Module-II
Atomic structure-II

Quantum numbers and their significance, Normalized and orthogonal wave functions. Sign of wave functions.Radial and angular wave functions for hydrogen atom. Radial and angular distribution curves. Shapes of s, p, d and f orbital's. Contour boundary and probability diagrams. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity, Aufbau’s principle and its limitations, Variation of orbital energy with atomic number.
Assignment-3: Atomic term symbol
Practice-3: Build an Atom (VLab)
Practice-4: Early experiment to characterize the atom
Module-III
Periodic Properties-I

s, p, d, f block elements, the long form of periodic table. Detailed discussion of the following properties of the elements with reference to s and p-block, Effective nuclear charge, shielding or screening effect, Slater rules, variation of effective nuclear charge in periodic table, Atomic radii (van der Waals), Ionic and crystal radii, covalent radii (octahedral and tetrahedral), Ionization enthalpy, Successive ionization enthalpies and factors affecting ionization energy, Applications of ionization enthalpy
Assignment-4: Application of effective nuclear charge
Assignment-5: Shielding effect of inner-shell electrons on the valence shell electron
Practice-5: The Periodic table of elements (Vlab)
Module-IV
Periodic Properties-II

Electron gain enthalpy, trends of electron gain enthalpy. Electronegativity, Pauling’s/ Mulliken’s electronegativity scales. Variation of electronegativity with bond order, partial charge, hybridization, group electronegativity.
Assignment-6: Polarizing powder and Polarizability
Practice-6: Estimation of free alkali present in different soaps/detergents (Vlab)
Practice-7: Estimation of Barium (Vlab)
Practice-8: Estimation of Fe(II) and oxalic acid using standardized KMnO4 solution
Module-V
Chemical Bonding-I(Ionic Bonding)

Ionic bond: General characteristics, types of ions, size effects, radius ratio rule and its limitations, Packing of ions in crystals, Born-Lande equation Madelung constant, Born-Haber cycle and its application, solvation energy.
Assignment-7: Radius ratio of different cubic crystal structures
Practice-9: Determine the solubilities of solid compounds in water and in ethanol.
Module-VI
Chemical Bonding-II (Covalent Bonding-I)

Covalent bond: Lewis structure, Valence Bond theory (Heitler-London approach), Energetic of hybridization, equivalent and non-equivalent hybrid orbitals, Resonance and resonance energy, Molecular orbital theory. Molecular orbital diagrams of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules, Formal charge, Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR).
Assignment-8: Wave mechanical treatment of covalent bond
Practice-10: Comparing ionic and Covalent compounds (Vlab)
Practice-11: Compare the melting points of various compounds.
Module-VII
Chemical Bonding-III (Covalent Bonding-II)

Covalent character in ionic compounds, polarizing power and polarisability, Fajan’s rules and consequences of polarization, Ionic character in covalent compounds: Bond moment and dipole moment, Percentage ionic character from dipole moment and electronegativity difference
Assignment-9: Molecular orbital’s for homonuclear diatomic molecules
Assignment-10: Term symbols for a diatomic molecule
Practice-12: Determine the conductivity of water solutions of the soluble solids

Session 2

Wave mechanics: de Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and its significance
https://www.coursera.org/lecture/black-holes-astro-101/07-02-introduction-to-quantum-mechanics-CqW9Q
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8mMN2X5_Vw

Session 4

Significance of Ψ and Ψ2
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OFwskHrtYQ4

Session 6

Assigment-2: Sommerfeld Extension of the Bohr Theory
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMmNPGdx1Ec

Session 7

Practice-1 (2 hours): Determine the atomic configuration and bonding ability (Vlab)
https://www.newpathonline.com/free-curriculum-resources/virtual_lab/Atoms_and_Chemical_Bonding/9/12,13,14/1921

Session 9

Quantum numbers and their significance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aoi4j8es4gQ

Session 11

Radial and angular wave functions for hydrogen atom. Radial and angular distribution curves.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hBl2B0eZO60

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DvRzdCnsiYw

Session 12

Shapes of s, p, d and f orbital's. Contour boundary and probability diagrams
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qd82UYzn0SA&frags=pl%2Cwn
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVtMKejyBiE

Session 13

Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrNlJaI_qqE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrXA8t0-9rU

Session 14

Aufbau’s principle and its limitations, Variation of orbital energy with atomic number
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZAT1_lppEUI
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Em51yNI8MG0

Session 15

Assignment-3 (2 hours): Atomic term symbol
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rerp-G5fdjg

Session 16

Session 18

s, p, d, f block elements, the long form of periodic table. Detailed discussion of the following properties of the elements, with reference to s and p-block
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gszMWKYyKXY
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qd5Bj8NQTOM

Session 19

Effective nuclear charge, shielding or screening effect, Slater rules, variation of effective nuclear charge in periodic table.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hs5t-6iq6-c

Session 20

Atomic radii (van der Waals), Ionic and crystal radii, covalent radii (octahedral and tetrahedral).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7jTawpdg5M
https://guidancecorner.com/atomic-size/

Session 21

Ionization enthalpy, Successive ionization enthalpies and factors affecting ionization energy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hePb00CqvP0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s16ElcXLfY4

Session 23

Session 24

Assignment-5: Shielding effect of inner-shell electrons on the valence shell electron
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Mtx-hwWGZo

Session 25

Session 26

Electron gain enthalpy, trends of electron gain enthalpy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aPkVxJQ3ZF8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Wx_dXNgvuQ

Session 27

Electronegativity, Pauling’s/ Mulliken’s electronegativity scales
https://www.slideshare.net/TannuSaini4/electronegativity-93707199

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8n55vouqelM

Session 28

Variation of electronegativity with bond order, partial charge, hybridization, group electronegativity.
<a
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvziYfGx07w
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_T9iZWhZTY8

Session 29

Assignment-6: Polarizing powder and Polarizability
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhFpVlo9LLI

Session 30

Practice-6 (2 hours): Estimation of free alkali present in different soaps/detergents
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ersHDsiAVko

Session 31

Practice-7 (2 hours): Estimation of Barium (Vlab)
https://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=2&brch=193&sim=350&cnt=1

Session 32

Practice-8 (2 hours): Estimation of Fe(II) and oxalic acid using standardized KMnO4 solution
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqrfnHwQjOA

Session 33

Ionic bond: General characteristics, types of ions, size effects, radius ratio rule and its limitations.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=07Z2fMp7pTQ
https://www.toppr.com/guides/chemistry/the-solid-state/radius-ratio-rule/

Session 36

Born-Haber cycle and its application, solvation energy.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DI-bwx8r3r8

Session 37

Assignment-7: Radius ratio of different cubic crystal structures
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYty8cxRInA

Session 38

Practice-9 (2 hours): Determine the solubilities of solid compounds in water and in ethanol.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARgCJN__sWU

Session 39

Covalent bond: Lewis structure, Valence Bond theory (Heitler-London approach).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PRmYlUuDXVI
https://byjus.com/chemistry/valence-bond-theory/

Session 40

Energetic of hybridization, equivalent and non-equivalent hybrid orbitals, Resonance and resonance energy.
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds/hybridization-and-hybrid-orbitals-chemistry/v/sp3-hybrid-orbital-jay-final

Session 42

Formal charge, Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e99iaUKsucc
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q9-JjyAEqnU

Session 43

Assignment-8: Wave mechanical treatment of covalent bond
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFzZdcMnlK4

Session 44

Practice-10 (2 hours): Comparing ionic and Covalent compounds
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SMBA7E6ZZjg

Session 45

Practice-11 (2 hours): Compare the melting points of various compounds
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQNaTfqXECk

Session 46

Covalent character in ionic compounds, polarizing power and polarisability.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R0AAlcffn1s

Session 47

Fajan’s rules and consequences of polarization.
https://byjus.com/jee/fajans-rule/

Session 48

Ionic character in covalent compounds: Bond moment and dipole moment.
ttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OY2_q-1t2Q8

Session 49

Percentage ionic character from dipole moment and electronegativity difference.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=boEY5qIevvw

Session 50

Assignment-9: Molecular orbital’s for homonuclear diatomic molecules
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3QPImW9dpE

Session 51

Assignment-10 (2 hours): Term symbols for a diatomic molecule
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6mwJRcE5oPo

Session 52

Practice-12 (2 hours): Determine the conductivity of water solutions of the soluble solids
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhyMOVvAu3s

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    Shraban Kumar Sahoo completed his master degree in Chemistry from NIT Rourkela, in 2014 and his Ph.D. in Material and Industrial chemistry from NIT Rourkela in 2019 on thesis entitle “Graphene based metal oxide nanocomposites for removal of toxic pollutants from synthetic as well as industrials waste water”. During his PhD, he published one ACS, […]