Bioenergetics and Membrane Biology

Teacher

Dr Sitaram Swain

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Core Courses

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Course Name : Bioenergetics and Membrane Biology

Code(Credit) :CUTM1701(3-1-2)

Course Objectives

  • • To learn basic concepts of Bioenergetics, mechanisms of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation.
    • To understand composition and structure of biomembranes, transport mechanisms across biological membranes.
    • To learn the concept and mechanism of ATP synthesis.

Learning Outcomes

  • • The students will learn basic concepts of Bioenergetics, mechanisms of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation.
    • They will understand composition and structure of biomembranes, transport mechanisms across biological membranes and will learn the concept and mechanism of ATP synthesis.

Course Syllabus

Module:I Bioenergetics: Concepts of free energy, state functions, equilibrium constant. Coupled reactions, energy charge, ATP cycle, phosphorylation potential. Standard energy of hydrolysis of ATP, PEP, 1,3 BPG and thioesters. Redox reactions, standard redox potentials and Nernst equation. Universal electron carriers.
Module:II Biomembranes: Historical background, membrane models. Membrane functions. Composition of biomembranes: Lipids -Phospholipids, Glycolipids, sterols; Proteins-Peripheral Proteins, Integral Membrane Proteins and Lipid-Anchored proteins, and carbohydrates. Comparison of the composition of various cellular and subcellular membranes. Role of Flippase, Floppase and Scramblase.
Module:III Model systems to study membranes: Lipid Monolayers, Planar Bilayer and Liposome, and their application. Polymorphic Lipid-Water Systems. The various determinants of polymorphic phases: CMC, lipid shape, critical packing parameter.
Module:IV Membrane fluidity: lateral, transverse and rotational motion of lipids and proteins. Factors affecting membrane fluidity- composition, barriers (tight junctions), cytoskeleton interactions, microdomains – rafts, caveolae. Fence and gate model.Techniques to study membrane dynamics: FRAP, TNBS, SPT.
Module:V Transport across membranes: Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. Passive transport- glucose transporter and anion transporter. Primary active transporters- P type ATPases, V type ATPases, F type ATPases. Secondary active transporters – lactose permease, Na+ - glucose symporter. ABC family of transporters – MDR and CFTR. Bacteriorhodopsin. Ion channels: voltage-gated ion channels (Na+ /K+ voltage-gated channel) and ligand-gated ion channels (acetyl choline receptor), and aquaporins.Ionophores: valinomycin, gramicidin.
Module:VI Oxidative phosphorylation: The electron transport chain - its organization and function. Sequence of electron transport, Peter Mitchell’s chemiosmotictheory and Proton gradient. FoF1 ATP synthase, mechanism of ATP synthesis. Transporters in mitochondria. Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation.
Module:VII Photophosphorylation, Hill reaction. Photosynthetic pigments and light harvesting complexes in plants. Photosystem I and Photosystem II. Z-scheme of photosynthetic electron flow Photophosphorylation, Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylations and its significance.
Laboratory Practices:
• Determination of Critical Micelle Concentration of detergents.
• Study the photosynthetic O2 evolution using Hydrillaplant.
• Estimation of chlorophyll and carotenoids in leaves.
• Isolation of chloroplast pigments from spinach leaves.
• Separation of chloroplast pigments by paper chromatography and TLC.
• To study Hill reaction by using artificial electronacceptor.
• Separation of RBC membrane proteins bySDS-PAGE.
• Isolation of mitochondria from liver and assay of SDH as marker enzyme.
Suggested Readings:
1. Molecular Cell Biology (2016) 8th ed., Lodish, H., Berk, A., Kaiser, C.A., Krieger, M., Bretscher, A., Ploegh, H., Amon, A. and Scott, M.P., W.H. Freeman & Company (New York).
2. Principles of Biochemistry (2008) 3rd ed., Voet, D.J., Voet, J.G. and Pratt, C.W., John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. (New York), ISBN:13: 978-0470-23396-2
3. Lehninger: Principles of Biochemistry (2017) 7th ed., Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M.,
W.H. Freeman and Company (New York).

Session Plan

Session 1

Bioenergetics: Concepts of free energy, state functions, equilibrium constant

Session 2

Coupled reactions, energy charge, ATP cycle

Session 3

phosphorylation potential

Session 4

phosphorylation potential

Session 5

. Standard energy of hydrolysis of ATP, PEP, 1,3 BPG and thioesters.

Session 6

Redox reactions, standard redox potentials and Nernst equation.

Session 7

Universal electron carriers.

Session 9

Historical background, membrane models

Session 10

Membrane functions. Composition of biomembranes:

Session 11

-Phospholipids, Glycolipids, sterols; Proteins-Peripheral Proteins,

Session 12

Integral Membrane Proteins and Lipid-Anchored proteins, and carbohydrates.

Session 13

. Comparison of the composition of various cellular and subcellular membranes.

Session 14

Role of Flippase, Floppase and Scramblase

Session 15

Model systems to study membranes:

Session 16

Lipid Monolayers, Planar Bilayer and Liposome, and their application.

Session 20

Factors affecting membrane fluidity- composition, barriers (tight junctions), cytoskeleton interactions, microdomains – rafts, caveolae. Fence and gate model.Techniques to study membrane dynamics: FRAP, TNBS, SPT.

Session 19

Membrane fluidity: lateral, transverse and rotational motion of lipids and proteins.

Session 17

Polymorphic Lipid-Water Systems.

Case Studies

Case Studies

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Dr Sitaram Swain

Assistant Professor
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Dr Sitaram Swain has received PhD degree from Utkal University in the year 2017. He is also trained and experienced from TATA Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India. He has experienced with cell line culture, clinical biochemistry, immuno-fixation, immunoassay, cancer cytogenetic, serum protein electrophoresis and tumour marker analysis. He has qualified NET(ICAR-ASRB) in Animal biotechnology. He has […]