Cell and Molecular Biology


Gagan Kumar Panigrahi


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Course Name : Cell and Molecular Biology

Code(Credit) : CUTM1437(3-1-0)

Course Objectives

By the end of the course, learners should have a knowledge of:
● The cell biology of all major groups of organisms, including microorganisms, plants and animals
● How genome organisation differs in the major groups of organisms
● The complex interactions between nucleus and cytoplasm that determine how cells function
● Basic concepts of how cells become specialised into different types in complex organisms
● How the cytoskeleton is organised and its role in cellular function

Learning Outcomes

At the end of Cell and Molecular Biology course:
• learners should have developed knowledge of the major ideas and current experimental approaches in cell biology and molecular biology.
• learners should be able to progress to related courses in Biological Sciences, including Biochemistry, Genetics, Neuroscience, Pathology, Plant Sciences.

Course Syllabus

Module I: Biological Membranes And Transport Of Biomolecules.

Structure of biological membranes: Cell wall (Prokaryotic versus eukaryotic), the plasma membrane, Membrane proteins, Mobility of membrane proteins, Membrane biogenesis: Cell wall and cell membrane biogenesis, Cell-Cell and cell-matrix interactions: Extracellular matrix and cell-matrix interactions (Matrix structural proteins, Matrix Polysaccharides; Matrix adhesion proteins), Cell-Cell interactions (Adhesion Junctions, Tight Junctions, Gap junctions, Plasmodesmata), Membrane Trafficking (Pumps, channels, transporters): Ions channels, Active transport driven by ATP hydrolysis, Active transport driven by Ion gradients, Passive transport, Facilitated transport, Endocytosis (Phagocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis).


Glucose uptake assay

Module II: Cytoskeleton, Cell motility and Cell division.

Structure and Organization of Actin Filaments: assembly and disassembly of actin filaments, organization of actin filaments, association of actin filaments with the plasma membrane, Intermediate filaments: assembly of intermediate filaments, intracellular organization of intermediate filaments, The microtubule: structure and dynamic organization of microtubules, Eukaryotic cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis, Cell death and cell renewal: Programmed cell death, stem cells and maintenance of adult tissues. Cell cycle and its regulation and check points.


Plasmid isolation (miniprep).

Module III: Intercellular communication and the Nucleus.

Signaling molecules and their receptors, modes of cell signaling, Cell surface receptors, G Protein-coupled receptors. Receptor protein tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptors, Pathways of Intracellular signal transduction, second messengers, the cAMP Pathway, cGMP, Nuclear organization, traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, chromosomes, Chromatin organization (DNA packaging), Lampbrush chromosome, Polytene chromosome, telocentric chromosome, Inter-phase chromatin, Euchromatin and Heterochromatin, karyotype and its significance, the Nucleolus.


Extraction of DNA from the fish fins.

Module IV: Replication, Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions and Transcription.

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication: DNA polymerases, replisome, primase, telomerase, inhibitors of replication. DNA synthesis by reverse transcription, Prokaryotic transcription mechanisms, Prokaryotic transcriptional regulation (Operon concept), Eukaryotic transcription –core promoter and general transcription factors (GTFs), Eukaryotic transcription–activating transcription factors and enhancers, Post-Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression.


Visualization of DNA by performing agarose gel electrophoresis and extraction of DNA from the agarose gel.

Module V: RNA Processing, Translation and Protein sorting.

RNA-processing, mRNA export. Post transcriptional modification and: RNA splicing, spliceosome, RNA editing, Genetic code. Translation: Protein synthesis, post-translational modifications: Glycosylation, Phosphorylation, Ubiquitination, Inhibitors of transcription and translation. Protein sorting and Targeting: Co translational targeting and post translational targeting. Protein targeting to Mitochondria,Chloroplast, Endoplasmic reticulum, Peroxisome and Plasmamembrane. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: role of chromatin in regulating gene expression and gene silencing.


DNA amplification using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Module VI: Protein Structure, Function and Evolution

Unique principles of protein structure and molecular machines (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary structures), Study of protein structures (circulsar dichorism, X-ray crystallography and cryo electron microscopy), How proteins have evolved and how analysis of protein structure can help us to understand the evolutionary relationships between different proteins and their function.

Module VII: Enzyme Catalysis and Protein Engineering

How the peptide and protein structures discussed in the preceding module can assume functions, Enzyme catalysis, mechanism and kinetics, Co-operative (allosteric) molecular basis of metabolic regulation, Principles of protein folding and stability, Protein engineering and mechanistic enzymology–how to create novel, functional proteins, by rational design, semi-rational approaches, and by directed evolution.


In silico membrane-receptor and ligand interaction studies using DISCOVERY STUDIO (BIOVIA).

Text Books:

1. Geoffrey M. Cooper, Robert E. Hausman (Boston University). The Cell: A Molecular Approach. ASM Press, Washington D.C. Fourth edition.
2. Cell and molecular biology Robertis, De and Robertis Lea and Febiger. Eighth Edition.

Reference Books:

1. Molecular Biology of the Cell Alberts, B., et al. 6th Rev ed. Taylor & Francis; 2014 ISBN 978-0-8153-4432-2 (hard), 978-0-8153-4524-4
2. Essential Cell Biology Alberts, B., et al. 4th Rev ed. Garland; 2013 ISBN 9780815344544
3. Lewin’s Genes XII Krebs, J.E. et al. Jones & Bartlett; 2018 ISBN 9781284104493
4. Molecular Cell Biology Lodish H. et al. 8th ed. W.H. Freeman and Company; 2016 ISBN 9781464183393

Session 2

Cell wall and cell membrane biogenesis

Session 3

Lipids and lipid modification

Session 4

Cell-Cell and cell-matrix interactions

Session 5

Membrane Trafficking

Session 6

Practice 1: Glucose uptake assay (2h)

Session 7

Structure and Organization of Actin Filaments

Session 8

Intermediate filaments

Session 9

The microtubule cytoskeleton

Session 10

Eukaryotic cell division

Session 11

Cell death and cell renewal

Session 12

Practice 2: Plasmid isolation (miniprep) (2h)

Session 13

Signaling molecules and their receptors, modes of cell signaling

Session 14

Cell receptors

Session 15

Pathways of Intracellular signal transduction, second messengers, the cAMP Pathway, cGMP

Session 16

Nuclear organization

Session 17

The Nucleolus

Session 18

Practice 3: Extraction of DNA from the fish fins. (2h)

Session 19

DNA & RNA structure

Session 20

DNA synthesis and DNA Repair

Session 21

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms

Session 22

Post-Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression

Session 23

RNA Processing and Translation

Session 24

Practice 4: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and Extraction of DNA from the agarose gel. (2h)

Session 25

Polymerase chain reaction

Session 26

Gene cloning

Session 27

How those proteins may be modified for use in specific experiments (e.g. localization, protein interactions, etc.)

Session 28

Regulation of gene expression (e.g. RNAi, CRISPR-Cas9)

Session 29

Practice 5: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). (2h)

Session 30

Unique principles of protein structure

Session 31

How the peptide and protein structures assume functions

Session 32

Enzyme catalysis, mechanism and kinetics

Session 33

Co-operative (allosteric) molecular basis of metabolic regulation

Session 34

Principles of protein folding and stability

Session 35

Protein engineering

Session 36

Practice 6: In silico membrane-receptor and ligand interaction studies using DISCOVERY STUDIO (BIOVIA). (2h)

Our Main Teachers

Gagan Kumar Panigrahi

Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology


Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, School of Applied Science, Centurion University of Technology and Management

Have specialization in Biochemistry and Molecular biology. Qualified GATE and NET. Research interest in Biochemistry, Microbiology and taxonomy. Teaching expertise in subject Cell biology, molecular biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Plant physiology and metabolism.