Chemistry of Dairy Products

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Soma Maji

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Core Courses

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Course Name : Chemistry of Dairy Products

Code(Credit) : CUTM1157(2-1-0)

Course Objectives

• To understand the chemical composition and legal standards of milk products
• Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of dairy products

Learning Outcomes

• Understand chemical composition and legal standards of milk products.
• Know about the physico-chemical changes during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products, concentrated and dried milk products and ice cream and frozen desserts.

Course Syllabus

Module I: Chemistry of Cream, butter and ghee ( 7 hr)

• Chemical composition and legal standards of milk products
• Chemistry of creaming and factors affecting the same
• Ripening and neutralization of cream
• Theories of churning and factors affecting the same. Butter colour
• Ghee: Physico-chemical changes during manufacture
• Hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration, their causes
• Prevention and role of antioxidants in ghee

Practice:(4 hr)
• Cream: estimation of fat and acidity.
• Butter: estimation of fat, moisture, curd and salt content.
• Ghee: estimation of moisture, acid value

• Butyro refractive reading and Reichert Meissl value/ Polanske value of ghee.

Module II: Chemistry of traditional dairy products (4 hr)

• Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products: Khoa and Paneer
• Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products: Channa and some channa based products
• Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products: Dahi and Lassi
• Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products: Chakka and Shrikhand

Practice: (2 hr)
• Estimation of moisture, fat and protein content in khoa/paneer
• Estimation of moisture, fat and protein content in chhana/chakka

Module III: Chemistry of cheese (2 hr)

• Chemistry of cheese: milk clotting enzymes and enzymatic coagulation of milk
• Biochemical changes during ripening of cheese

Practice: (2 hr)
• Estimation of moisture and fat content in cheese.
• Estimation of salt and protein content in cheese.

Module IV: Chemistry of concentrated and dried milk and ice cream (4 hr)

• Physico-chemical changes during preparation and storage of concentrated milk products
• Physico-chemical changes during preparation and storage of dried milk products.
• Physico-chemical changes during processing and storage of ice cream and frozen desserts.
• Role and mechanism of stabilizers and emulsifiers in ice cream.

Practice: (4 hr)
• Determination of lactose and sucrose in sweetened condensed milk.
• Milk powder: moisture, fat and ash
• Milk powder: solubility, acidity and bulk density.
• Ice cream: estimation of fat, total solids and protein

Suggested Readings

• Fox, P. F. (Ed). (1982). Developments in Dairy Chemistry. Applied Sci. Publ., NewYork.
• Fox, P. F. and Sweeny, Mc. (1998). Dairy Chemistry and Bio-Chemistry. Academic /Platinum Publ., NewYork.
• Fox, P. F. (Ed). (2006). Developments in Dairy Chemistry. Applied Sci. Publ., NewYork.
• Jenness, R. and Patton, S. (1984). Principles of Dairy Chemistry. Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
• Mathur, M. P., Datta, D. R., and Dinakar, P. (1999). Text book of Dairy Chemistry, Directorate of Information and Publs., ICAR, New Delhi.
• Webb, B. H., Johonson, A. H., and Alford, J. A. (Eds). (2008). Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry. CBS Publ. and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Session Plan

Session 1

Chemical composition and legal standards of milk products

Session 2

Session 3

Ripening and neutralization of cream

PDF: Butter and ripening and nutralization of cream

Session 4

Theories of churning and factors affecting the same. Butter colour

PDF: Theories of churning and butter colour

Session 5

Ghee: Physico-chemical changes during manufacture

Video: Ghee manufacturing process

PDF: Ghee manufacturing process

Session 6

Hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration, their causes


PDF: Ghee: Rancidity and their cause

Session 7

Prevention and role of antioxidants in ghee

PDF: Use of antioxidant and prevention of rancidity in Ghee

Session 8 (Practice)

Cream: estimation of fat and acidity.
Butter: estimation of fat, moisture, curd and salt content.

Video: Estimation of fat in cream
Video: Determination of acidity of milk
Video: Salt content of butter

Session 9 (Practice)

Ghee: estimation of moisture, acid value, Butyro refractive reading and Reichert Meissl value/ Polanske value.

Video: RM testing assembly

Session 10

Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products: Khoa and Paneer

Video: Physical changes during khoa preparation

PDF: Physico chemical changes in milk constituents during the preparation of Khoa and paneer

Session 11

Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products: Channa and some channa based products

Video: Mechanism of acid coagulation

Video: Iso electric precipitation of milk

PDF: Chemistry of chhana and chhana based products

Session 12

Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products: Dahi and Lassi

Video: Science behind curd formation

Video: Chemistry of fermentation

PDF: Chemistry of fermented milk products (Dahi and lassi)

Session 13

Physico-chemical changes in milk constituents during manufacture and storage of traditional dairy products: Chakka and Shrikhand

PDF: Chemistry of chakka and shrikhand

Session 14 (Practice)

Khoa/paneer: estimation of moisture, fat, protein
Chhana/chakka: estimation of moisture, fat, protein

Session 15

Chemistry of cheese: milk clotting enzymes and enzymatic coagulation of milk

Video: Chemistry of cheese

Session 16

Biochemical changes during ripening of cheese

Video: Cheese ripening process

Session 17 (Practice)

Estimation of moisture, fat, salt and protein content in cheese.

Session 18

Physico-chemical changes during preparation and storage of concentrated milk products

PDF: Physico chemical changes of condensed milk

PDF: Physico chemical changes in Condensed milk and dried milk

Session 19

Physico-chemical changes during preparation and storage of dried milk products.

PDF: Physico chemical changes in Condensed milk and dried milk

Session 20

Physico-chemical changes during processing and storage of ice cream and frozen desserts.

Session 21

Role and mechanism of stabilizers and emulsifiers in ice cream.

PPT: Role and mechanism of stabilizers and emulsifiers in ice cream.

Session 22 (Practice)

Determination of lactose and sucrose in sweetened condensed milk.

Session 23 (Practice)

Milk powder: moisture, fat and ash

Video: Determination of fat % of milk powder

Session 25 (Practice)

Ice cream: estimation of fat, total solids and protein

Video: Ice cream test methods by FSSAI

Case Studies

Case Studies

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Soma Maji

Assistant Professor
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Soma Maji is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, School of Agriculture and Bio Engineering, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha. She is B.Tech in Dairy Technology, M.Tech in Dairy Chemistry from WBUAFS, West Bengal Nadia and pursuing PhD in Dairy Chemistry from NDRI, Karnal. She has qualified […]