Chemistry of Milk

Teacher

Dr. Rajashree Jena

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Chemistry of Milk

Code (Credit) : CUTM1149 (2-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • Acquaint students with the definition, chemical composition and structure of milk.
  • To impart knowledge regarding classification of milk proteins, milk enzymes, milk carbohydrates, milk lipids and milk salts etc.
  • Demonstrate metallic contamination of milk.

Learning Outcomes

  • Able to determine total milk protein, fat content, total solids and SNF in milk.
  • Estimate different enzymes such as alkaline phosphate and lipase in milk.
  • Determine the content of lactose, ash, phosphorous and calcium in milk.

Course Syllabus

Module-I: Milk definition, composition and variation (1 hr)

  • Definition, structure of milk and factors affecting composition of milk

Practice (2 hrs)

  • Sampling techniques of chemical examination of milk
  • Determination of pH and titratable acidity of milk

Module-II: Milk Proteins (5 hrs)

  • Casein: Isolation, fractionation and chemical composition, physico-chemical properties of casein
  • Whey proteins: Preparation of total whey proteins: α-Lactalbumin and β-Lactoglobulin.
  • Properties of α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, Immmunoglobulin and other minor milk proteins and non-proteins nitrogen constituents of milk
  • Hydrolysis and denaturation of milk proteins under different physical and chemical environments
  • Estimation of milk proteins using different physical and chemical methods. Importance of genetic polymorphism of milk proteins.

Practice (2 hrs)

  • Determination of casein, whey proteins and NPN in milk.
  • Determination of total milk proteins by Kjeldahal method.

Module-III: Enzymes in milk (2 hrs)

  • Milk enzymes with special reference to lipases, Xanthine Oxidase, phosphatases, proteases and lacto-peroxidase

Practice (1 hr)

  • Estimation of alkaline phosphatase and lipase in milk.

Module-IV: Milk Carbohydrates (4 hrs)

  • Milk carbohydrates their status and importance.
  • Physical and chemical properties of lactose
  • Sugar amine condensation, amadori rearrangement, production of hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF), Processing related degradation of lactose

Practice (1 hr):

  • Determination of lactose in milk.

Module-V: Milk lipids (4 hrs)

  • Definition, general composition and classification of milk lipids.
  • Nomenclature and general structure of glycerides, factors affecting the fatty acid composition.
  • Milk phospholipids and their role in milk products, unsaponifiable matter
  • Fat soluble vitamins

Practice (2 hrs)

  • Determination of fat in milk by different methods.
  • Determination of total solids and solids not fat in milk

Module-VI: Salt composition and metals (3 hrs)

  • Milk Salts: Mineral in milk (a) major mineral (b) Trace elements
  • Physical equilibria among the milk salts
  • Milk contact surfaces and metallic contamination.

Practice (5 hrs)

  • Determination of ash in milk.
  • Determination of phosphorus and calcium in milk.
  • Determination of chloride in milk.
  • Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of water.
  • Estimation of available chlorine from bleaching powder.

Suggested Readings:

 

Text Books:

  • Fox, P. F. and Sweeny, Mc. (1998). Dairy Chemistry and Bio-Chemistry. Academic /Platinum Publ., NewYork.
  • Jenness, R. and Patton, S. (1984). Principles of Dairy Chemistry. Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
  • Mathur, M.P., Datta, D. R., and Dinakar, P. (1999). Text book of Dairy Chemistry, Directorate of Information and Publs., ICAR, New Delhi.

Online Source:

Session Plan

Session 1

Definition, structure of milk and factors affecting composition of milk (1 hr).

Session 2 (Practice)

Sampling techniques of chemical examination of milk (1 hr).

Session 3 (Practice)

Determination of pH and titratable acidity of milk (1 hr).

Session 4

Casein: Isolation, fractionation and chemical composition, physico-chemical properties of casein (1 hr).

Session 5 (Practice)

Determination of casein, whey proteins and NPN in milk (1 hr).

Session 6

Whey proteins: Preparation of total whey proteins: α-Lactalbumin and β-Lactoglobulin (1 hr).

Session 7

Properties of α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, Immmunoglobulin and other minor milk proteins and non-proteins nitrogen constituents of milk (1 hr).

Session 8 (Practice)

Determination of total milk proteins by Kjeldahal method (1 hr).

Session 9

Hydrolysis and denaturation of milk proteins under different physical and chemical environments (1 hr).

Session 10

Estimation of milk proteins using different physical and chemical methods. Importance of genetic polymorphism of milk proteins (1 hr).

Session 11

Milk enzymes with special reference to lipases, Xanthine Oxidase, phosphatases, proteases and lactoperoxidase (1 hr).

Session 12 (Practice)

Estimation of alkaline phosphatase and lipase in milk (1 hr).

Session 13

Milk enzymes with special reference to lipases, Xanthine Oxidase, phosphatases, proteases and lactoperoxidase (1 hr).

Session 14

Milk carbohydrates their status and importance (1 hr).

Session 15 (Practice)

Determination of lactose in milk (1 hr).

Session 16

Physical and chemical properties of lactose (1 hr).

Session 17

Sugar amine condensation, amadori rearrangement, production of hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF), Processing related degradation of lactose (1 hr).

Session 18

Sugar amine condensation, amadori rearrangement, production of hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF), Processing related degradation of lactose (1 hr).

Session 19

Definition, general composition and classification of milk lipids (1 hr).

Session 20 (Practice)

Determination of fat in milk by different methods (1 hr).

Session 21

Nomenclature and general structure of glycerides, factors affecting the fatty acid composition (1 hr).

Session 22

Milk phospholipids and their role in milk products, unsaponifiable matter (1 hr).

Session 23 (Practice)

Determination of total solids and solids not fat in milk (1 hr).

Session 24

Fat soluble vitamins (1 hr).

Session 25

Milk Salts: Mineral in milk (a) major mineral (b) Trace elements (1 hr).

Session 26 (Practice)

Determination of ash in milk (1 hr).

Session 27

Physical equilibria among the milk salts (1 hr).

Session 28 (Practice)

Determination of phosphorus and calcium in milk (1 hr).

Session 29 (Practice)

Determination of chloride in milk (1 hr).

Session 30 (Practice)

Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of water (1 hr).

Session 31

Milk contact surfaces and metallic contamination (1 hr).

Session 32 (Practice)

Estimation of available chlorine from bleaching powder (1 hr).

Case Studies

Case Studies

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    Dr. Rajashree Jena is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. She has obtained her Ph. D degree from National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in the field of Dairy Microbiology. She has more than 3 years of research and teaching experience at […]

    Soma Maji

    Assistant Professor
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    Soma Maji is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, School of Agriculture and Bio Engineering, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha. She is B.Tech in Dairy Technology, M.Tech in Dairy Chemistry from WBUAFS, West Bengal Nadia and pursuing PhD in Dairy Chemistry from NDRI, Karnal. She has qualified […]