Clinical Biochemistry

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Dr Sitaram Swain

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Course Name : Clinical Biochemistry

Code(Credit) : CUTM1703(2-3-1)

Course Objectives

  • • To learn about the normal constituents of urine, blood and their significance in maintaining good health.
    • Exposure to the mechanisms of causation of diseases of liver and kidney.
    • Develop understanding of the current concepts related to mechanism of Cancer. To become aware with the variations in the levels of trigycerides and lipoproteins and their relationship with various diseases.
    • To get acquainted with the role of enzymes in diagnosis of various diseases.
    • To learn qualitative and quantitative analysis of constituents of biological fluids such as urine, blood and their estimation using standard methods.

Learning Outcomes

  • • Students will learn about the normal constituents of urine, blood and their significance in maintaining good health.The mechanisms of causation of diseases of liver, kidney and of Cancer will be explained.
    • Students will become aware with the variations in the levels of trigycerides and lipoproteins and their relationship with various diseases.
    • Students will get acquainted with the role of enzymes in diagnosis of various diseases.

Course Syllabus

Module:I Urine: Normal composition of urine – volume, pH, colour, specific gravity. Constituents-urea, uric acid, creatinine, pigment. Abnormal constituents – glucose, albumin, ketone bodies, variations in urea, creatinine, pigments and their clinical significance in brief.
Module:II Abnormalities in Nitrogen Metabolism – Uremia, hyperuricemia, porphyria and factors affecting nitrogen balance.
Module:III Blood: Normal constituents of blood and their variation in pathological conditions - urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose, bilirubin, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio. Lipid profile,cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins - HDL and LDL.
Module:IV Blood Clotting – Disturbances in blood clotting mechanisms – haemorrhagic disorders,haemophilia, von Willebrand’s disease, purpura, Rendu-Osler-Werber disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acquired prothrombin complex disorders, circulating anticoagulants.
Module:V Diagnostic Enzymes – Enzymes in health and diseases. Biochemical diagnosis of diseases by enzyme assays – SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, CPK, cholinesterase, LDH
Module:VI Disorders of liver and kidney – Jaundice, fatty liver, normal and abnormal functions of liver and kidney. Inulin and urea clearance. Electrolytes and acid-base balance – Regulation of electrolyte content of body fluids and maintenance of pH, reabsorption of electrolytes.
Module: VII Biochemistry of Cancer, Cellular differentiation in cancer, carcinogens and cancer therapy,Inborn errors of metabolism: Sickle cell anaemia, phenyl ketonuria, Neimann – Pick disease and Gaucher’s disease.
Laboratory Practices:
• Qualitative and quantitative analysis of urine : proteins, Bence-Jones proteins, Cl-, Ca+2
• Qualitative analysis of abnormal constituents in urine - glucose, albumin, bile pigments, bile salts and ketone bodies.
• Experiments on blood (i)Estimation of haemoglobin by cyanmethemoglobin method
(ii)Determination of A/G ratio in serum
• Isolation and estimation of serum cholesterol
• Serum enzyme assays: alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, SGPT
• Gel Electrophoresis of serum proteins
Suggested Readings:
• Concise Medical Physiology – Choudhary – New Central Book Agency – Calcutta.
• TextBook of Medical Physiology – Guyton – Prism Books Pvt. Ltd. – Bangalore.
• Harper’s Biochemistry – Murray, Granner, Mayes, and Rodwell – Prentice Hall International Inc.
• Textbook of medical physiology: A. C. Gyton, and J. E HallSaunders Elsevier Publications, A division of Reed Elsevier India Pvt .Ltd.New Delhi ISBN 81-8147-084-2
• T.M. Delvin (editor), Text book of biochemistry with clinical correlation, (1982), John Wiley & Sons Inc. USA.

Session Plan

Session 1

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Session 2

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    Dr Sitaram Swain

    Assistant Professor
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    Dr Sitaram Swain has received PhD degree from Utkal University in the year 2017. He is also trained and experienced from TATA Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India. He has experienced with cell line culture, clinical biochemistry, immuno-fixation, immunoassay, cancer cytogenetic, serum protein electrophoresis and tumour marker analysis. He has qualified NET(ICAR-ASRB) in Animal biotechnology. He has […]