Diploma Track: Dairy Processing and Development

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Soma Maji

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Diploma Courses

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Diploma Track Title: Dairy Processing and Development

Total Credits ( T-P-P): (6-7-12)

Course Description

About the Course:
Dairy Processing and Development course will provide in-depth, yet easy-to-understand, information on technology, microbiological and chemical aspects of milk and associated dairy products. The course will provide insights into processing technologies from pasteurization, homogenization and UHT treatment to filtration, and many other aspects of modern dairy processing. This course aims to provide the trainees with a hands-on practical experience of manufacture of different milk and milk products
Eligibility:
10+2 in Science (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology)
Prerequisite:
Basic knowledge of dairy food processing
Duration of the course: Seven-months online theory class and 2 months offline class in PKD Campus.
Faculty:
Ms. Soma Maji, Dr. Prasanta Kumar Choudhury, Dr. Rajashree Jena, Dr. Vivek Kumar

Courses Division( list all divisions):

1. Milk Processing in Dairy Industry (2-1-0)
2. Microbiology of Milk and Milk Products (2-1-0)
3. Chemistry of milk and milk products and quality assurance in dairy Industry (2-1-0)
4. Dairy Products development (0-2-0)
5. Quality analysis of milk (0-2-0)
6. Projects in dairy industry/units (0-0-12)

Course Objectives:

• To acquaint students about the processes involved in the processing of raw milk with constructional details, operation and maintenance of dairy equipments.
• To impart a comprehensive knowledge on chemical and microbiological quality of milk for production of health beneficial foods.
• To apprise students with the quality control and safety of milk and milk products.

Learning Outcomes:

• Able to prepare standardized milk as well as able to handle and maintain equipments related to raw milk processing.
• Implement improvement strategies on developing better dairy starters for the production of fermented foods with therapeutic properties.
• Detect adulterants, preservatives and neutralizers in milk and milk products.

Course Syllabus:

1. Milk Processing in Dairy Industry (2-1-0)

Module-I
1.1. Collection and Transportation of milk: Organization of milk collection routes, practices for collection of milk, preservation at farm, refrigeration, natural microbial inhibitor, reception, chilling, classification and storage.
1.2. Standardization of milk: Addition or removal of milk fat to make different milk products, numericals.
Practice
1.1. Familiarization with equipments for reception of milk in plant, platform test.
1.2. Cream separation: parts of separator and the process.
1.3. Preparation of special milks: toned and double toned milk.

Module-II
1.3. Mechanical Separation: Sedimentation, Filtration, Centrifugal separation, Bactofugation.
1.4. Homogenization and Pasteurization: Classification, power requirement, care and maintenance
1.5. Packaging machines: Pouch filling machine pre-pack and aseptic filling bulk handling system
1.6. Mixing and agitation: Theory and purpose of mixing, Equipment used
Practice
1.4 Constructional details, operation and maintenance of homogenizers.
1.5. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of HTST pasteurizer.
1.6. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of pouch filling machine.

Module-III

1.7. Evaporation and Drying: Basic principles and classification
1.8. Membrane processing: Ultra filtration, Reverse Osmosis and electro dialysis, Materials for membrane construction, Ultra filtration of milk, Effect of milk constituents on operation, membranes for electro-dialysis.
Practice
1.7. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of multiple effect evaporator.
1.8. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of spray drier.

Module-IV
1.9. Introduction to boiler and steam generation
1.10. Basic electrical engineering and Refrigeration and air conditioning

Suggested Readings
1. Ahmed, T. 1990. Dairy Plant System Engineering and Management. Kitab Mahal, K.L. Agencies Pvt. ltd., New Delhi.
2. Anantakrishnan, C.P. and Simha, N. N. 1987. Technology and Engineering of Dairy Plant Operations. Laxmi Publ., Delhi.
3. Food Engineering Operations. 1969. Elsevier Publ. Co., Amsterdam, New York.
4. Farrall, A. W. 1963. Engineering for Dairy and Food Products. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
5. Gardner, A. W. 1971. Industrial drying. Leonard Hill Publ., London.

2. Microbiology of Milk and Milk Products (2-1-0)

Module-I
2.1 Microorganisms associated with raw milk; significance of different groups of bacteria i.e. psychrotrophs, mesophiles, thermodurics, and thermophiles in milk
2.2. Role of microorganisms in spoilage of milk; souring, curdling, bitty cream, proteolysis, lipolysis; abnormal flavors and discoloration.
Practice
2.1. Morphological examination of common dairy organism (size and shape, Arrangement and sporulation)
2.2. Estimation of microbial load in milk by SPC and Dye Reduction test (MBRT)

Module-II
2.3. Mastitis milk: organisms causing mastitis, somatic cells secreted in milk; detection of somatic cell count (SCC) and organisms causing mastitis in milk. Processing and public health significance
2.4. Sources of microbial contamination of milk and their importance, Milk –borne diseases
Practice
2.3. Detection of mastitis milk, pH, chloride, Hotis test and CAMP test
2.4. Detection of important pathogens using selective media; E. Coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus

Module-III
2.5. Types of food spoilage and their aetiology, Methods of limiting microbial proliferation in foods
Practice
2.5. Sampling of milk and assessment of pasteurized milk based on SPC, Coliform test

Module-IV
2.6. Concept, importance and types of starter cultures in dairy industry and Modern trends in propagation, production and preservation methods of starter cultures
2.7. Starter defects and failures and bacteriophages of dairy starters and their impact on dairy industry.
2.8. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics in development of health foods.
2.9. Nutritional and therapeutic significance of fermented milks.
2.10. Cheese Starters: Bacterial and mold ripened cheeses, Rennet substitutes.
Practice
2.6. Testing purity of starter cultures by Gram’s staining, catalase test; creatine test
2.7. Preparation and microbial examination of dahi, yoghurt and cultured butter milk.

Suggested Readings
1. Marth & Steele- Applied Dairy Microbiology- 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis, New York
2. Cogan, T. M. and Accolas, J. P. (1995). Dairy Starter Cultures. VCH Publ., USA.
3. Farnworth, E. R. (2008). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. 2nd ed. CRC Press, USA.
4. Tamime, A Y. and Robinson, R. K. (1999). Yoghurt Science and Technology, 2nd ed. Woodhead Publ. Ltd. and CRC Press LLC, USA.

3. Chemistry of milk and milk products and quality assurance in dairy Industry (2-1-0)
Module-I

Module-I
3.1 Introduction to the chemistry of milk: milk protein, carbohydrate, lipids and enzymes – definition and physicochemical properties.
3.2 Introduction to the physical properties of milk: Density, specific gravity, viscosity, surface tension, Refractive index, colligative properties of milk
3.3 Physico-chemical changes during manufacture and storage of dairy products: Ghee, Khoa, chhana, Paneer, cheese, dahi, lassi, dried milk and frozen desserts
Practice
3.1. Determination of acidity, density, the specific gravity of milk
3.2. Determination of fat in milk by different method

Module-II
3.4 Awareness about Quality and Safety of Dairy Foods: Concepts of quality control, quality assurance and food safety
3.5 Introduction to Food Safety Management System: Concepts of Quality Management System (QMS)–ISO: 9000:2000, ISO: 22000; Principles of QMS; HACCP concept and principle reference to dairy foods, TQM tools and techniques.
3.6 Preparation and standardization of reagents required in the analysis of milk and milk products.
3.7 Sampling plan and testing methods for the detection of adulterants, preservatives and neutralizers in milk and milk products.
Practice
3.3. Preparation and standardization of dairy reagents such as acids, alkali solutions etc.
3.4. Detection of adulterants, preservatives, and neutralizers in milk and milk products.

Module-III
3.8 Environmental contaminates such as pesticides, antibiotics, heavy metals in milk and milk products
3.9 Importance of milk contact surfaces, metallic contamination in dairy industry.
3.10 Concepts of hygiene and sanitation in dairy plant, treatment and disposal of waste water and effluents.
Practice
3.5. Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of the water.
3.6. Estimation of available chlorine from bleaching powder.
3.7. Quality evaluation by HACCP in the preparation of dairy products.

Suggested Readings

1. Alli, I. (2004). Food Quality Assurance: Principles and Practices. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.
2. Jacobs, M. B. (1999). Chemical Analysis of Food and Food Products. CBS Distributors, New Delhi.
3. Kramer, A. and Twigg, B. A. (Eds). (1966). Fundamentals of Quality Control for the food industry, The AVI Publ. Co., West Port, Conn., USA.

4. Dairy Products Development (0-2-0)
Practice
4.1. Preparation of pasteurized milk and flavoured milk
4.2. Preparation of khoa based indigenous dairy products (khoa, kalakand, peda, burfi)
4.3. Preparation of Channa based products (Paneer, rasgolla)
4.4. Preparation of clarified butter
4.5. Manufacture of value added dairy drinks (herbal lassi)
4.6. Preparation of fermented dairy products (Dahi and yoghurt)
4.7. Preparation of cereal-based dairy foods (Rice kheer, Payasam)
4.8. Preparation of whey beverages
4.9. Value addition in paneer by use of spices
4.10. Preparation of milk wine

5. Quality Analysis of Milk (0-2-0)
Practice
5.1. Platform tests of milk in the receiving dock (Organoleptic tests)
5.2. Platform tests (chemical analysis)
5.3. Determination of pasteurization efficiency.
5.4. Determination of homogenization efficiency.
5.5. Determination of solids not fat
5.6. Titratable acidity and alkaline phosphatase in milk
5.7. Detection of neutralizer, sugar, detergent in market milk samples
5.8. Evaluation of microbial quality by MBRT test
5.9. Assessment of microbiological quality of milk and milk products.
5.10. Risk assessment of a dairy product (Dahi)

Session Plan for the Entire Diploma Course:

Theory
1.1. Collection and Transportation of milk: Organization of milk collection routes, practices for collection of milk, preservation at farm, refrigeration, natural microbial inhibitor, reception, chilling, classification and storage.

PDF- Milk reception at dairy dock

1.2. Standardization of milk: Addition or removal of milk fat to make different milk products, numerical.

PDF- Standardization-of-Milk

1.3. Mechanical Separation: Sedimentation, Filtration, Centrifugal separation, Bactofugation.

PDF- Mechanical Separation

1.4. Homogenization and Pasteurization: Classification, power requirement, care and maintenance

PDF- Homogenization
PDF - Homogenization Numericals
PDF- Pasteurization
PDF- Pasteurization Numericals

1.5. Packaging machines: Pouch filling machine pre-pack and aseptic filling bulk handling system

PDF- Packaging of Dairy Products

PDF - Packaging machines
PDF - Packaging Machines for dairy Products

1.6. Mixing and agitation: Theory and purpose of mixing, Equipment used

PDF - Mixing and Agitation

1.7. Evaporation and Drying: Basic principles and classification

PDF - Evaporation and Classification

1.8. Membrane processing: Ultra filtration, Reverse Osmosis and electro dialysis, Materials for membrane construction, Ultra filtration of milk, Effect of milk constituents on operation, membranes for electro-dialysis.

PDF - Membrane separation

1.9. Introduction to boiler and steam generatio

PDF - Design-and-fabrication-of-pressing-steam-boiler

1.10. Basics of Refrigeration and air conditioning

1.2. Cream separation: parts of separator and the process.

Video Link: Cream separation: parts of separator and the process

1.3. Preparation of special milks: toned and double toned milk.

1.4. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of homogenizers.

Video Link: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of homogenizers

1.5. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of HTST pasteurizer.

Video Link: HTST Pasteuriser

1.6. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of pouch filling machine.

Video Link: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of pouch filling machine.

1.7. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of multiple effect evaporator.

Video Link: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of multiple effect evaporator.

1.8. Constructional details, operation and maintenance of spray drier.

Video Link: Constructional details, operation and maintenance of spray drier.

Theory
2.1 Microorganisms associated with raw milk; significance of different groups of bacteria i.e. psychrotrophs, mesophiles, thermodurics, and thermophiles in milk

PDF: Microorganisms-associated-with-raw-milk-and-their-significance.pdf
Video Link:
Microflora in Milk

2.2. Role of microorganisms in spoilage of milk; souring, curdling, bitty cream, proteolysis, lipolysis; abnormal flavors and discoloration.

PDF: Role-of-microorganisms-in-spoilage-of-milk.pdf

2.3. Mastitis milk: organisms causing mastitis, somatic cells secreted in milk; detection of somatic cell count (SCC) and organisms causing mastitis in milk. Processing and public health significance

PDF: Mastitis-milk.pdf

2.4. Sources of microbial contamination of milk and their importance, Milk –borne diseases

PDF: Sources-of-microbial-contamination-in-milk.pdf

PDF: Milk-borne-diseases.pdf

2.5. Types of food spoilage and their aetiology, Methods of limiting microbial proliferation in foods

PDF: Types-of-food-spoilage-and-their-aetiology.pdf
PDF: Methods-of-limiting-microbial-proliferation-in-foods.pdf

2.6. Concept, importance and types of starter cultures in dairy industry and modern trends in propagation, production and preservation methods of starter cultures

PDF: Concept-importance-and-types-of-starter-cultures-in-dairy-industry.pdf

PDF: Propagation-and-preservation-of-starter-cultures.pdf

2.7. Starter defects and failures and bacteriophages of dairy starters and their impact on dairy industry

PDF: Starter-defects-and-failure.pdf

2.8. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics in development of health foods

PDF: Lactic-acid-bacteria-as-probiotics-in-development-of-health-foods.pdf

2.9. Nutritional and therapeutic significance of fermented milks

PDF: Nutritional-and-therapeutic-properties-of-fermented-milk-products.pdf

2.10. Cheese Starters: Bacterial and mold ripened cheeses, Rennet substitutes

PDF: Cheese-starters.pdf
PDF: Rennet.pdf
Video Link:
Origin and Status of Cheese

Practice
2.1. Morphological examination of common dairy organism (size and shape, arrangement and sporulation)

Video Link: Morphological examination of common dairy organism (size and shape, arrangement and sporulation)
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vRgzY8cu6c
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dP3JjfE2ejI
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbDHV7j5-PQ

2.2. Estimation of microbial load in milk by SPC and Dye Reduction test (MBRT)

Video Link: Standard Plate Count Test
Video Link: Methylene Blue Reduction Test
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akWF2wNfCbk&t=98s
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XXIntGsBog

2.3. Detection of mastitis milk, pH, chloride, Hotis test and CAMP test

Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2Zeodfrgk0
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nVVM3wa0RU
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkkQ9TmiM94

2.4. Detection of important pathogens using selective media; E.coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus

2.5. Sampling of milk and assessment of pasteurized milk based on SPC and coliform test

Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubnxXGoJ288

Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROh3OpBCOOw

2.6. Testing purity of starter cultures by Gram’s staining, catalase test, creatine test

Video Link: Gram's staining
Video Link: Catalase test
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sxa46xKfIOY
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PGBf7Xehcns&t=133s

2.7. Preparation and microbial examination of dahi, yoghurt and cultured butter milk

Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w02pX4_QYAs
Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=on31VixEGus

Theory
3.1 Introduction to chemistry of milk: milk protein, carbohydrate, lipids and enzymes – definition and physico – chemical properties.

PDF- Milk-Protein

PDF - Milk-carbohydrates
PDF - Milk-lipids
PDF - Milk-Enzymes

3.2 Introduction to the physical properties of milk: Density, specific gravity, Viscosity, surface tension, Refractive index, colligative properties of milk

PDF- Physical chemistry of milk1

Video: Concept of density
Video: Density of a mixture

Video: Concept of viscosityVideo: Concept of surface tension
Video: Concept of refractive index

3.4 Awareness about Quality and Safety of Dairy Foods: Concepts of quality control, quality assurance and food safety

PDF: Quality Assurance and Quality Control

3.5 Introduction to Food Safety Management System: Concepts of Quality Management System (QMS)–ISO: 9000:2000, ISO: 22000; Principles of QMS; HACCP concept and principle reference to dairy foods, TQM tools and techniques.

PDF: Food regulatory systems
PDF: HACCP

3.6 Preparation and standardization of reagents required in the analysis of milk and milk products.

PDF: Standard reagent preparation

3.7 Sampling plan and testing methods for the detection of adulterants, preservatives and neutralizers in milk and milk products.

PDF: Detection of adulteration in milk

3.8 Environmental contaminates such as pesticides, antibiotics, heavy metals in milk and milk products

PDF: Heavy metals as milk contaminants

PDF: Milk contaminants (Pesticide and antibiotics)

PDF: Method of analysis of milk contaminants

3.9 Importance of milk contact surfaces, metallic contamination in dairy industry.

PDF: Milk contact surfaces

3.10 Concepts of hygiene and sanitation in dairy plant, treatment and disposal of waste water and effluents.

PDF: Water hardness

Practice
3.1. Determination of acidity, density, specific gravity of milk (2 hr)

Video: Determination of density and specific gravity of milk

3.2. Determination of fat in milk by Gerber method (1 hr)

Video: Determination of milk fat by Gerber method

3.3. Preparation and standardization of dairy reagents such as acids, alkali solutions (2 hr.)

Video: Preparation and standardization of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide
Video: Determination of 1 N hydrochloric acid

3.4. Detection of common adulterants, preservatives, and neutralizers in milk and milk products (2 hr.)

Video: detection of adulteration, preservative and neutralizer in milk

3.5. Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of water (1 hr.)

Video: Determination of hardness in water

3.6. Estimation of available chlorine from bleaching powder (1 hr.)

Video: Determination of available chlorine in bleaching powder

3.7. Quality evaluation by HACCP in the preparation of dairy products(1 hr.)

Video: HACCP with an example

Practice
4.1. Preparation of pasteurized milk and flavoured milk

4.2. Preparation of khoa based indigenous dairy products (khoa, kalakand, peda, burfi)

4.3. Preparation of Channa based products (Paneer, rasgolla)

4.4. Preparation of clarified butter

4.5. Manufacture of value added dairy drinks (herbal lassi)

4.6. Preparation of fermented dairy products (Dahi and yoghurt)

4.7. Preparation of cereal-based dairy foods (Rice kheer, Payasam)

4.8. Preparation of whey beverages

4.9. Value addition in paneer by use of spices

4.10. Preparation of milk wine

Practice
5.1 Platform tests of milk in the receiving dock (Organoleptic tests)

5.2. Platform tests (chemical analysis)

5.3. Determination of pasteurization efficiency

5.4 Determination of homogenization efficiency

5.5. Determination of solids not fat

5.6. Titratable acidity and alkaline phosphatase in milk

5.7. Detection of neutralizer, sugar, detergent in market milk samples

5.8. Evaluation of microbial quality by MBRT test

5.9. Assessment of microbiological quality of milk and milk products

5.10. Risk assessment of a dairy product (Dahi)

List of Projects/ papers/jobs/products to be done in diploma course:(0-0-12)

1. Development of Probiotic Dairy Foods
2. Determination of Milk Adulteration.
3. Development of Cost-Effective Small Scale Dairy Equipment
4. Publications/Patent/Product

Our Main Teachers

Soma Maji

Assistant Professor
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Soma Maji is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, School of Agriculture and Bio Engineering, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha. She is B.Tech in Dairy Technology, M.Tech in Dairy Chemistry from WBUAFS, West Bengal Nadia and pursuing PhD in Dairy Chemistry from NDRI, Karnal. She has qualified […]

Dr. Prasanta Kumar Choudhury

Asst. Professor and Head, Dairy Technology
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Dr. Prasanta Kumar Choudhury is currently working as Assistant Professor and Head in the Department of Dairy Technology, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. He obtained his Ph. D degree from the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in the field of Dairy Microbiology. He has more than 7 years of experience at […]

Dr. Rajashree Jena is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. She has obtained her Ph. D degree from National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in the field of Dairy Microbiology. She has more than 3 years of research and teaching experience at […]

Dr. Vivek Kumar

Assistant Professor
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Dr. Vivek Kumar is currently working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Agricultural Engineering, School of Agricultural and Bioengineering, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from IIT Kharagpur in the field of Food Process Engineering. He has more than 10 years of research/teaching experience and […]