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• The relationship between the internal structure, function, taxonomy, physiology, ecology and developmental genetics of the organism.
• Evolutionary history and taxonomic variation of vascular plant anatomy.
• They will understand the morphology and development of reproductive parts.
Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:
• Acquire an insight in to the internal structure, tissues involved in developmental stages of plants, molecular mechanisms of fruit and seed development.
• Get knowledge on structural adaptations in plants growing in different environment.
• Pursue higher studies and research
Introduction and importance of Plant Anatomy: Importance in plant development, taxonomy and identification, ecology and pharmacognosy
Tissues: Simple tissues, complex tissues and their function; Differentiation of vascular tissues: Secondary xylem, secondary phloem in angiosperms and gymnosperms (conifers), structure and functions, , induction of vascular tissues by leaves and by auxins; role of roots and cytokinin in vascular differentiation; Meristematic tissue: Structure, classification, distribution and function
1.Study of anatomical details through permanent slides preparation
Secondary growth: Secondary growth in stem and root; Anomalous secondary growth in dicot and monocot stems; Cambial types: Vascular cambium and phellegen, structure and functions, cambial activity in grafting and wound healing
2. T.S of plants showing secondary growth
3. T.S of plants showing anomalous secondary growth
Wood Structure and anatomy: Macro and micro structure and composition, chemical composition and properties of wood, bark and bark products; Wood parenchyma: apotracheal and paratracheal parenchyma; Hard wood anatomy, organisation of wood, sap wood, heard wood; Axial Parenchyma Fibres and Ray parenchyma and their value in wood identification'; Nodal anatomy .
4. Wood Sample Preparation for Microscopic Analysis
Shoot development: Shoot systems and its derivatives, Theories of organization of meristem in stem
Root development: Root systems and its derivatives, Theories of organization of meristem in root, Quiscent center, Coordination of shoot and root development; Root-shoot transition, Ontogeny and phylogeny of vessels
Leaf Development: Ontogeny of dorsiventral leaf, arrangement of leaves (Phyllotaxy)
Modes of Flower Development: Meristem tissue in Flower Development, Genetic Control of Flower Development.
Anther: Anther wall, endothecium, middle layer, tapetum, Tapetum-Structure, types and function ,
Microsporogenesis : Pollen tetrad development, and Pollen wall proteins, Pollen viability and Storage , Male gametophyte development, Differential behaviour of sperms.
Megasporogensis: Female gametophyte development, Organization of the embryo sac,and different types of it . Pollination-pollination mechanism, biotic and abiotic pollination and floral attractants
Pollen-pistil interaction: The stigma-Types and structure, stigmatic exudates, style transmitting tissue, canal cell. Post pollination events stigma receptivity (recognition and rejection reaction) pollen adhesion, pollen hydration, pollen germination and pollen tube growth and guide, sexual incompatibility (both homorphic and hetermorphic), Double fertilization and In vitro fertilization,
5. Pollen Viability
6. T.S of ovary of flower showing placentation
Methods of In Vitro Fertilization: Anther culture, Intra-ovarian pollination, Gynogenesis.
Endosperm development and differentiation: Types of endosperms, ruminate endospermEmbryogenesis: Embryo development in Dicot and monocot, Polyembryony; Apomixes, agamospermy and parthenocarpy
Fruit Biology: Development and Diversity of Fruit , Dispersal.
1. Pandey S N, Ajanta Chadha (2009)Plant Anatomy and Embryology , Vikas Publishing House
2. Raghavan, V. (1999).Developmental Biology of Flowering Plants. Springer-Verlag, New York
3. Bhojwani, S. S., Bhatnagar, S. P. and Dantu, P.K. (2014).The Embryology of Angiosperms.Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.
1. Eames .A.J. and Macdaniels,L.H,1947, An Introduction to Plant Anatomy, McGrow- Hill,N.Y and London.
2. Easu,K,1965 Plant Anatomy.Wiley N.W
Modes of Flower Development: Meristem tissue in Flower Development, Genetic Control of Flower Development
Anther: Anther wall, endothecium, middle layer, tapetum, Tapetum-Structure, types and function
Male gametophyte: Development of male gametophyte , Differential behaviour of sperms, Male sterilty and self incompatibilty in crop plants
Pollination: Pollination mechanism, biotic and abiotic pollination and floral attractants
Pollen-pistil interaction:The stigma-Types and structure, stigmatic exudates, style transmitting tissue, canal cell
Post pollination events: stigma receptivity (recognition and rejection reaction), pollen adhesion, pollen hydration, pollen germination and pollen tube growth
Sexual incompatibility and Fertilisation: Homomorphic and hetermorphic sexual incompatibility; Double fertilization
Post fertilisation events: Endosperm development and differentiation, Types of endosperms, ruminate endosperm
Embryogenesis: Embryo development in Dicot and monocot, Polyembryony; Apomixes, agamospermy and parthenocarpy
Fruit Biology: Parthenocarpy; Development and Diversity of Fruit
Dr. Sagarika Parida has completed her research fellowship from NRRI, ICAR, Cuttack and has been awarded the Ph. D. degree in Botany from Utkal University. She has worked as Post Doctoral Fellow in IMMT, CSIR, Bhubaneswar. The focus of her research work has been on microbiology, integrated pest and disease management and herbal drug standardization […]