Electrical Machines Operation And Control

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Debasis Sahu

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Core Courses

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Course Name : Electrical Machines Operation and Control

Code(Credit) : CUTM1054(2-2-0)

Course Objectives

  • To introduce the students about principles of electromagnetism applied to alternating machines.
  • To familiarise the students about the fundamental laws that governs the operation of machines and to extend its application to synchronous generator and motors.
  • To introduce the students about the constraints associated with starting of Induction motors.
  • Develop selection skill to identify the type of generators or motors required for particular application.

Learning Outcomes

On completing this course, students will be able to:

  • Distinguish the constructional similarity and dissimilarity between various machines.
  • Perform different tests on various machines.
  • Understand electromagnetic and electromagnetic induction.
  • Understand DC Machines.
  • Understand single and three phase A.C circuits, and Understand AC machines.

Course Syllabus

Module-I: D.C. Machines (5 Hrs)

Theory

Construction, Classification and Principle of operation of DC machines.

Theory & testing:-EMF equation of DC generator, DC Motor Characteristics, Speed Equation of DC Motor. Characteristic for Speed Armature Current, Torque Armature Current and Speed Torque of (i) Separately Excited DC Motor, (ii) DC Shunt Motor, (iii) DC Series Motor, and (iv) DC Compound Motor, Comparison between Different types of DC Motors

Application- DC Generator, DC Motor-Types

Practice:

1) Determination of OCC (Open Circuit Characteristics) of D.C Shunt Generator.

2) Starting & Speed Control of D.C Shunt motor by (i) Field flux control method & (ii) armature voltage control method.

3) Starting & Speed Control of D.C Series motor by (i) Field flux control method & (ii) armature voltage control method.

 

MODULE II: Stepper Motors (Precision Machines) (6 Hrs)

Theory

Stepper motor drive, basic principles involved in stepper motor control, stepper motor specification, operation and commercial driver chips and packages, Brushless DC Motors, Reluctance Motor, Hysteresis Motor

Application in Medical, Automobile, Civil, Electrical etc

Practice:

4) Motor Voltage and Current Measurement.

5) ON-Load Tap changer

 

Module-III: Induction Motors (8 Hrs)

Theory

Principles of operation of induction motors, both single and 3-phase types. Torque-speed curves, Different types of single phase motors

Three Phase Induction Motor

Equivalent Circuit and Phasor Diagram, No-Load and Blocked Rotor tests, Determination of Parameters, Slip-Torque Characteristics Losses and Efficiency, Effect of rotor resistance, Starting and speed control methods, Cogging, Crawling and Electrical Braking of Induction Motors.

Applications of three & single phase motors which will assist in picking the right one for an application.

Practice: 

5) Determination of parameter of a single phase induction motor and study of (a) Capacitor start induction motor (b) Capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor

6) Determination of Efficiency, Plotting of Torque-Slip Characteristics of Three Phase Induction motor by Brake Test.

7) Load test of a 3 phase slip ring induction motor.

 

Module-IV: Three Phase Synchronous Generators (7 Hrs)

Theory

Construction, Principle, Coil Pitch, Distributed Windings in A.C. Machines, The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator (Armature Reaction Reactance, Synchronous Reactance and Impedance). The Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator, Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators (Power Angle Equation and Power Angle Characteristic)

Practice:

8) Plotting the open circuit and short circuit characteristics of alternator.

9) Calculating the voltage regulation by synchronous impedance method.

10) Calculating the voltage regulation by zero power factor method.

 

Module-V: Parallel Operation Of Three Phase AC Synchronous Generators (4 Hrs)

Theory

Synchronous condenser, Hunting, Paralleling-Conditions, Procedure, Operation of Generators in Parallel with Infinite bus bar, Effect of excitation, effect of unequal voltage and steam power supply.

Practice:

11) Connection & verifying the conditions of parallel operation of alternators.

12) Verification of direct axis reactance, quadrature axis reactance

13) Load Sharing during parallel operation using Dymola.

 

Module-VI: Three Phase Synchronous Motors (6 Hrs)

Theory

Basic Principles of Motor operation, Construction, Starting Synchronous Motors, Synchronous Motor Ratings, Equivalent circuit & phasor diagram, Effect of excitation on varying load, power developed in a synchronous motor.

Applications of synchronous motors

Practice:

14) Study of universal motor and shaded pole motor.

15) Use of synchronous motor as a synchronous condenser for p.f improvement.

 

Module-VII: Single-Phase Transformers (9 Hrs): 

Theory

Construction and principle of operation, EMF Equation, Transformation ratio, Practical and Ideal transformers

Three Phase Transformers: Three-phase transformer connections- Star-star, Two Single-Phase Transformers connected in Open Delta (V-Connection) and their rating, Delta-star, Zig-zag connections. Scott connection, Open delta connection. Auto Transformers, Welding Transformer.

Application of Single & Three Phase transformer

Practice:

16) Prescribed tests of single phase and three phase Transformer.

17) Load balancing in a three phase distribution Transformer.

18) Simulation of open delta condition of Transformer.

TEXT BOOK:

  1. Electrical Machines – D P Kothari and I J Nagrath, Fourth Edition – Tata McGraw Hill.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  1. Electrical Machinery – P S Bimbhra – Khanna Publishers.
  2. Electrical Machines - P. K. Mukherjee, S. Chakravarti, Dhanpat Rai & Sons

Session Plan

Session 1

Construction of DC Generator and DC Motor,Classification and Principle of operation of DC machines,Theory & Testing:-EMF equation of DC generator,Speed Equation of DC Motor,Characteristic for Speed Armature Current, Torque Armature Current

https://www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=gW45N2WpD64

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oI-O9FCDqmg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_F4limaHYI

Session 2

Comparison between Different types of DC Motors and their Application,Speed Torque of (i) Separately Excited DC Motor, (ii) DC Shunt Motor,(iii) DC Series Motor, and (iv) DC Compound Motor, Application of DC Generator & Motors type

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UlHMQiXJ1Ug&t=5s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhBZSU253KE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwbUJClFcQA

Session 3

Determination of OCC (Open Circuit Characteristics) of DC Shunt generator

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iGBSuZPaJw

Session 4

Starting & Speed Control of D.C Series motor by (i) Field flux control method & (ii) armature voltage control method

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXMtnP-gf5s

Session 5

Starting & Speed Control of D.C Shunt motor by (i) Field flux control method & (ii) armature voltage control method

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3rae9NeLvsM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPmgx_0V_04

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vhnbvxrAucg

Session 6

Stepper Motors-Precision Machines-Basic principle involved in Stepper motor control,Operation and commercial driver chips and packages

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWMai3oirnM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pe71pKhP9ME

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZYQ-GqraLc

Session 7

BLDC Motors-Construction,Working Principle, Application

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bCEiOnuODac

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaWGJVHiJC8

Session 8

Reluctance & Hysteresis Motors-Construction,Working Principle, Application.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDon7Nrj1Tk

Session 9

Application in Medical, Automobile, Civil, Electrical etc.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9MG8-3QuSyQ

Session 10

Motor voltage and current measurement.

Session 11

Session 12

Principle of Operation of Single phase AC motors, Both Single Phase and Three Phase AC motors.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awrUxv7B-a8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7uzskt2LHI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjMaJxv-DgY

Session 13

Different types of single phase motors.

Session 14

Application of Single phase motors, which will assist in picking the right one for the application.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8jlkHAR2YA

Session 15

Three PHASE Induction Motors-principle,Starting of squirrel cage and slip ring rotor type induction machine,Losses and efficiency of three phase induction machine.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQqyGNOP_3o

Session 16

Speed Control of Induction Motors,Cogging, Crawling and Electrical braking of induction motors.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UfiNbIUN7G0

Session 17

Determination of parameter of a single phase induction motor and study of

(a) Capacitor start induction motor
(b) Capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor

Session 18

Determination of efficiency, plotting of torque slip charecteristics of three phase induction motor by brake test.

Session 19

Load test of a 3 phase slip ring induction motor.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTMnVPZ2hj8

Session 20

Three Phase Synchronous Generator: Constructional Features of Squirrel Cage Rotor type.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5wJTlOplhE

Session 21

Slip Ring/Wound Rotor type.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6GSju8fZhSw

Session 22

Session 23

Power angle equation,characteristic, of salient and non-salient type.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8HFa_YjZIFc&t=6s

Session 24

Plotting OCC and SCC of alternator

Session 25

Calculating the voltage regulation from synchronous impedance method.

Session 26

Calculating the voltage regulation from zero power factor method,POTIER Reactance.

Session 27

Synchronous condenser, Hunting,Conditions of parallel operation, Procedure for paralleling alternators

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_NnxdPKWsIg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqdP1SIN2ZA

 

Session 28

Effect of excitation, unequal voltages and steam power supply.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ffz2bOQl5hs

Session 29

Connection and verification parallel operation of alternators,Verification of direct axis reactance, quadrature axis reactance.

Session 30

Load Sharing during parallel operation using Dymola.

Session 31

Three Phase Synchronous Motors: Basic Principles of Motor operation, Construction, Starting Synchronous Motors, Synchronous Motor Ratings.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vk2jDXxZIhs

Session 32

Equivalent circuit & phasor diagram.

Session 33

Effect of excitation on varying load.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OxoGG9SoVG4

Session 34

Power developed in a synchronous motor, Applications of synchronous motors.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1KduQPettcc

Session 35

Session 36

Use of synchronous motor as a synchronous condenser for p.f improvement.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqSNOK_FL9s

Session 37

Single-Phase Transformers: Construction and principle of operation, EMF Equation, Transformation ratio, Practical and Ideal transformers

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cx4_7lIjoBA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hXLA5sdT9Cs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B_8DWdZmh6M

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrIXioEn3yQ

Session 38

Three Phase Transformers: Three-phase transformer connections- Star-star

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rCgd7wPxw8

Session 39

Two Single-Phase Transformers connected in Open Delta (V-Connection) and their rating.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RsEIBc5Apg

Session 40

Delta-star, Zig-zag connections. Scott connection, Open delta connection.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkb6zY3KOKE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PuVmOLr5K8

Session 42

Application of Single & Three Phase transformer.

Session 43

Prescribed tests of single phase and three phase Transformer.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUW62Jy8RDY

Session 44

Load balancing in a three phase distribution Transformer.

Session 45

Simulation of open delta condition of Transformer.

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Case Studies

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