Fishery Oceanography

Teacher

Biswajit Mohanty

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Core Courses

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Course Name : Fishery Oceanography

FSEM 2104 (1+1) : FSEM 2104 (1-1-0)

Course Objectives

The branch of science concerned with the study of the sea. It is the scientific discipline concerned with all aspects of the world oceans and seas, including their physical and chemical properties, origin and geology, and life forms. Research in oceanography entails sampling of seawater and marine life, remote sensing of Oceanic process with aircraft and satellites, and exploration of the seafloor. Oceanography aids in predicting weather and climate, in the exploitation of the earth’s resources, and in understanding the effects of pollutants.

Learning Outcomes

The branch of science concerned with the study of the sea. It is the scientific discipline concerned with all aspects of the world oceans and seas, including their physical and chemical properties, origin and geology, and life forms. Research in oceanography entails sampling of seawater and marine life, remote sensing of Oceanic process with aircraft and satellites, and exploration of the seafloor. Oceanography aids in predicting weather and climate, in the exploitation of the earth’s resources, and in understanding the effects of pollutants. The study of oceanography  is classified in to

  1. Biological oceanography
  2. Chemical oceanography
  3. Physical oceanography

Biological oceanography: The study of plants, animals, and microbes of the ocean and their ecological interaction with the ocean.

Chemical oceanography:  is the study of the chemistry of the ocean and its chemical interaction with the atmosphere.

Geological oceanography is the study of the geology of the ocean floor including plate tectonics and paleoceanography.

Physical oceanography: Studies the ocean’s physical attributes including temperature-salinity structure, mixing waves, internal waves, surface tides, internal tides, and currents.

Course Syllabus

Fishery Oceanography                     

Theory

Introduction to Oceanography: classification; expeditions national and international. Earth and the ocean basin, distribution of water and land; relief of sea floor; Major feature of topography and terminology; major divisions. Relief in Indian oceans. Ocean Waves: definition and terms; classification, Difference between surface and long waves; wave theories; surface wave generation; spreading growth; Beaufort Scale; spilling and breaking waves; long waves, Tsunamis, Seiches, internal waves. Ocean Tides: Definition; Tidal phenomenon, elementary tidal definition; tidal inequalities; tide producing forces types of tides tidal bores, tide prediction. Ocean Currents: Definitions and features; measurements of currents; direct and indirect methods forces acting on sea waters; drift currents Ekman spirals,  upwelling,  sinking,  gradient  currents;  thermohaline  circulation;  characteristics; course; and significance of some major ocean currents of the world. El-Nino. Physical properties of sea water: Salinity and chlorinity; temperature; thermal properties of sea water; colligative and other properties of sea water; Residence time of constituents in seawater. Properties of sea ice; transmission of sound; absorption of radiation; eddy conductivity; diffusivity and viscosity. General distribution of temperature, salinity and density: Salinity and temperature of surface layer (SST), subsurface; distribution of temperature and salinity; The T-S diagram; water masses of Indian oceans. Chemistry of sea water: Constancy of composition; elements present in sea water; artificial sea water; dissolves gases in sea water; CO2 system and alkalinity; inorganic agencies affecting composition of sea water distribution of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, silicates and manganese in the oceans, factor influencing their distribution.

Practicals

Field visits and operation of oceanographic instruments- Nansen reversing water sampler, Bathythermograph, Grabs, Corers, Current meters, Tidal gauges, Echo-sounder. Measurement of temperature, Transparency, pH. Determination of DO, Salinity, Ammonia, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate in sea water.

Session Plan

Session 1

Introduction to Oceanography, Definitions, and classification; Oceanic Expeditions with respect to national and international scenario. The earth and the ocean, Composition of the hydrosphere; biosphere; Earths’ interior-crust, mantle, core, Distribution of water and land, Important facts about the ocean.

Session 1

Practical- NISKIN WATER SAMPLER and GRABS/CORERS-PRACTICALS

P1

Session 2

Relief of seafloor: Major features of topography and terminology; Major divisions. Relief in Indian oceans.

Session 2

Practical- Collection of Sediment samples

P2

Session 3

Ocean Waves: definition and terms; classification, Difference between the surface and long waves; wave theories; surface wave generation; spreading growth; Beaufort Scale; spilling and breaking waves; long waves, Tsunamis, Seiches, internal waves.

Session 3

Practical- Measurements of hydrographic properties

P3-8

Session 4

Ocean Tides: Definition; Tidal phenomenon, elementary tidal definition; tidal inequalities; tide producing forces types of tides tidal bores, tide prediction.

Session 4

Session 5

Ocean Currents: Definitions and features; measurements of currents; direct and indirect methods forces acting on sea waters; drift currents Ekman spirals,  upwelling,  sinking,  gradient currents;  thermohaline circulation;  characteristics; course; and significance of some major ocean currents of the world.

Session 5

Session 6

Physical properties of seawater: Salinity and chlorinity; temperature; thermal properties of seawater; colligative and other properties of seawater; Residence time of constituents in seawater. Properties of sea ice; the transmission of sound; absorption of radiation; eddy conductivity; diffusivity and viscosity.

Session 6

Session 7

Physical properties of seawater: General distribution of temperature, salinity, and density: Salinity and temperature of the surface layer (SST), subsurface; distribution of temperature and salinity; The T-S diagram; water masses of Indian oceans.

Session 7

Session 8

Chemistry of sea water: Constancy of composition; elements present in sea water; artificial sea water; dissolves gases in sea water; CO2 system and alkalinity; inorganic agencies affecting the composition of sea water distribution of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, silicates and manganese in the oceans, factor influencing their distribution.

Session 8

Session 9

Chemistry of sea water: Constancy of composition; elements present in sea water; artificial sea water; dissolves gases in sea water; CO2 system and alkalinity; inorganic agencies affecting the composition of sea water distribution of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, silicates and manganese in the oceans, factor influencing their distribution.

Session 9

Session 10

Chemistry of sea water: Constancy of composition; elements present in sea water; artificial sea water; dissolves gases in sea water; CO2 system and alkalinity; inorganic agencies affecting the composition of sea water distribution of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, silicates and manganese in the oceans, factor influencing their distribution.

Session 10

Case Studies

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