Food and Industrial Microbiology

Teacher

Dr. Rajashree Jena

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Food and Industrial Microbiology

Code (Credit) : CUTM1163 (2-0-1)

Course Objectives

  • To provide in-depth knowledge to students on different aspects of microbial growth and associated spoilage in foods.
  • Demonstrate students on principles, different preservation methods of food and mode of action of various preservation methods on microbes.
  • Acquaint students with types of fermentation processes and microbial production of industrial products.

Learning Outcomes

  • Explain the interactions between microorganisms and the food environment, and factors influencing their growth and survival.
  • Illustrate the use of basic microbiological methods for the evaluation of the microbial load in the different food matrices.
  • Able to compare various physical and chemical methods used in the control of microorganisms.
  • Involved in the production of different industrial products from microorganisms in industries.

Course Syllabus

Module-I: Scope of Food Microbiology (3 hrs)

  • Basic aspects, history, scope and microbes (bacteria, yeasts and molds) associated with food.
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect microbial growth in different foods.

Project (3 hrs)

  • Isolation of psychrophilic, salt and sugar tolerant microorganisms from foods.
  • Isolation of industrially important microorganisms from environment.

Module-II: Microbial Spoilage of Foods (4 hrs)

  • Overview of food spoilage, microbial spoilage, sources of contamination, control of spoilage of fruits, fruit juices and vegetables.
  • Microbial spoilage, sources of contamination, control of spoilage of cereals and canned foods.
  • Microbial spoilage, sources of contamination, control of spoilage of meat, poultry, sea foods.

Project (3 hrs)

  • Microbiological examination of fresh and canned fruits, vegetables and juices.
  • Microbiological examination of flour, bread, eggs and meat.

Module-III: Food Preservation (6 hrs)

  • Principles of food preservation: non-thermal methods.
  • Principles of food preservation: physical methods viz. high temperature preservation (D, Z and F Values)
  • Preservation by drying and chemical preservatives
  • Preservation by natural antimicrobial compounds
  • Biopreservation
  • Mode of action of various preservation methods on microbes

Project (2 hrs)

  • Determination of Z, D and F values

Module-IV: Fermentation Processes and Types of Fermenters (6 hrs)

  • Fermentation processes: Historical development, the range and components and criteria for selection of industrially important microorganisms
  • Types of fermentation (i.e. submerged, surface and solid state fermentation)
  • Preservation and improvement of industrially important micro-organisms using metabolic engineering/genetic engineering; media for industrial process
  • Upstream and downstream processing.
  • Fermenters: types (batch, fed batch and continuous), functions, design and control, sterilization.
  • Growth rate analysis and estimation of biomass, difference in chemostat and turbidostat.

Project (1.5 hrs)

  • Demonstration of design and control of a lab fermenter.

Module-V: Microbial Production of Industrial Products (5 hrs)

  • Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of single cell protein and industrial alcohol, beer and wine.
  • Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of organic acids (citric and lactic).
  • Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of enzymes (protease, lipase and rennet) and vitamin (B12).
  • Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of antibiotics and bacteriocins.
  • Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of fermented foods.

Project (3 hrs):

  • Production of lactic acid from whey.
  • Production of nisin and assaying the antimicrobial activity of the culture.
  • Production of fermented whey beverage.

Suggested Readings

 

Text Books

  • Frazier,W.C. and Westhoff, D. C. 2004. Food Microbiology. 3rd McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
  • Jay, J. M. 1992. Modern Food Microbiology. 4th Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, USA.
  • Okafor, N. 2007. Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Enfield: Science Publ., USA.
  • Ray, B. 2004. Fundamental Food Microbiology 3rd, CRC Press, Washington D.C. USA.
  • Waites, M. J. 2001. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction. Blackwell Science, London.

Online Source:

Session Plan

Session 1

Basic aspects, history, scope and microbes (bacteria, yeasts and molds) associated with food (1 hr).

Session 2 (Project)

Isolation of psychrophilic, salt and sugar tolerant microorganisms from foods (1.5 hrs).

Session 3

Basic aspects, history, scope and microbes (bacteria, yeasts and mold) associated with food (1 hr).

Session 4 (Project)

Isolation of industrially important microorganisms from environment (1.5 hrs).

Session 5

Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect microbial growth in different foods (1 hr).

Session 6

Overview of food spoilage, microbial spoilage, sources of contamination, control of spoilage of fruits, fruit juices and vegetables (1 hr).

Session 7 (Project)

Microbiological examination of fresh and canned fruits, vegetables and juices (1.5 hrs).

Session 8

Overview of food spoilage, microbial spoilage, sources of contamination, control of spoilage of fruits, fruit juices and vegetables (1 hr).

Session 9 (Project)

Microbiological examination of flour, bread, eggs and meat (1.5 hrs).

Session 10

Microbial spoilage, sources of contamination, control of spoilage of cereals and canned foods (1 hr).

Session 11

Microbial spoilage, sources of contamination, control of spoilage of meat, poultry, sea foods (1 hr).

Session 12

Principles of food preservation: non-thermal methods (1 hr).

Session 13

Principles of food preservation: physical methods viz. high temperature preservation (D, Z and F Values) (1 hr).

Session 14 (Project)

Determination of Z, D and F values (2 hrs).

Session 15

Session 16

Preservation by natural antimicrobial compounds (1 hr).

Session 17

Session 18

Mode of action of various preservation methods on microbes (1 hr).

Session 19

Fermentation processes: Historical development, the range and components and criteria for selection of industrially important microorganisms (1 hr).

Session 20

Types of fermentation (i.e. submerged, surface and solid state fermentation) (1 hr).

Session 21

Preservation and improvement of industrially important micro-organisms using metabolic engineering/genetic engineering (1 hr).

Session 22

Upstream and downstream processing (1 hr).

Session 23

Fermenters: types, functions, design and control, sterilization (1 hr).

Session 24 (Project)

Demonstration of design and control of a lab fermenter (1.5 hrs).

Session 25

Growth rate analysis and estimation of biomass, difference in chemostat and turbidostat (1 hr).

Session 26

Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of single cell protein and industrial alcohol, beer and wine (1 hr).

Session 27

Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of organic acids (citric and lactic) (1 hr).

Session 28 (Project)

Production of lactic acid from whey (1 hr).

Session 29

Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of enzymes (protease, lipase and rennet) and vitamin (B12) (1 hr).

Session 30

Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of antibiotics and bacteriocins (1 hr).

Session 31 (Project)

Production of nisin and assaying the antimicrobial activity of the culture (1 hr).

Session 32

Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of fermented foods (1 hr).

Session 33 (Project)

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    Dr. Rajashree Jena is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. She has obtained her Ph. D degree from National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in the field of Dairy Microbiology. She has more than 3 years of research and teaching experience at […]