Fruit Processing with Dryers

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Dr. Vivek Kumar

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Course Name : Fruit Processing with Dryers

 

Code(Credit) : ABC01(1-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • The program objective is aimed at training candidates for the job of a “Fruits and Vegetables Drying/ Dehydration Technician”, in the “Food Processing” Sector/Industry and aims at building the following key competencies amongst the learner.

Learning Outcomes

  • Prepare and maintain work area and process machineries for drying/dehydration
  • Prepare raw material for drying/dehydration
  • Dry/dehydrate fruits and vegetables
  • Document and maintain records related to the drying/dehydration process
  • Follow and maintain food safety and hygiene in the work environment

Course Syllabus

Module-1

Drying principles, Classification, and Selection of Dryers: Mechanics of drying, drying rate curves, drying time calculation, Moisture content, water activity and its determination, Basic drying processes, Classification and selection of dryers. Hot air dryers, Cabinet dryer, tunnel dryers, Pneumatic conveyor dryers, Vacuum tray drying, Osmotic dehydration etc.

Practice:

Practice 1: Preparation of banana cut chips in hot air tray dryer and vacuum-tray dryer.

Practice 2: Drying of apple rings in Vacuum tray dryer.

Practice 3: Comparative evaluation of quality parameters of grape raisins using hot air and vacuum tray dryer.

Module-2

Sun and Solar drying: Construction and operation principles of Solar dryers, Classifications, Economics of solar drying, Heat pump drying: The principles of heat-pump operation, advantages, limitations.

Practice:

Practice 4: Preparation of green mango slices, banana slices, pine-apple slices using solar drying and sun drying.

Practice 5: Development of a cost effective method for grape drying.

Practice 6: Quality analysis, packaging and storage study of the developed product.

 

Module-3

Freeze Drying: Introduction, Freeze drying stages, Industrial freeze dryers, simultaneous heat and mass transfers, properties of frozen foods, storage of frozen foods, freezing time calculation, fluidized bed drying: Introduction, construction and operational principles, types of fluidized bed dryers and selection.

Practice:

Practice 7: Preparation of apple and pineapple ring in freeze dryer and comparison of the quality with vacuum tray dryer.

Practice 8: Preparation of dried guava quarters and fig whole in the freeze dryer.

Practice 9: Development of a freeze dried method for ripen papaya and Sapota.

Practice 10: Quality analysis, packaging and storage study of the developed product.

Module-4

Microwave drying: Fundamental of microwave drying, Interaction of electric magnetic field with materials, microwave dryer, costing, Infrared drying: Basic principles, industrial drying applications, cost, Safety in microwave processing, Quality changes during drying and storage, Cost-Estimation Methods for Drying.

Practice:

Practice 11: Preparation of microwave dried whole fig and green mango slices.

Practice 12: Preparation of microwave dried papaya slices.

Practice 13: Quality analysis, packaging and storage study of the developed product.

 

Suggested Reading

  1. D. Chavan and J.V. Patil. 2013. Industrial Processing of Fruits and Vegetables. Astral International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  2. Rajarathnam and R.S. Ramteke. 2011. Advances in Preservation and Processing Technologies of Fruits and Vegetables. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi.
  3. P. Srivastava and Sanjeev Kumar. 2002. Fruit & Vegetable Preservation: Principles and Practices, 3rd Ed. International Book Distribution Co., Delhi.
  4. Girdhari Lal, G.S. Siddappa and G.L. Tandon. 1959. Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables. ICAR, New Delhi.

Session Plan

Session 1

Drying: Principles and Thory, Mechanics of drying, drying rate curves, drying time calculation, Moisture content, water activity and its determination, Basic drying processes,

Module 1 Drying Principles and Theory

Video Link: Drying Principles

Session 2

Classification and selection of dryers. Hot air dryers, Cabinet dryer,

Module 2 Classification and selection of Dryers

Session 3

Different types of Dryers.

Module 3 Different types of Dryers

Session 4

Sun and Solar drying: Construction and operation principles of Solar dryers, Classifications, Economics of solar drying.

Module 4 Sun and Solar drying

Video Link: Solar Dryers

Session 5

Heat pump drying: The principles of heat-pump operation, advantages, limitations.

Module 5 Heat pump drying

Session 6

Freeze Drying: Introduction, Freeze drying stages,

Module 6 Freeze Drying

Video Link: Freeze dryer

Session 7

Industrial freeze dryers, properties of frozen foods, storage of frozen foods, freezing time calculation,

Module 7 Industrial freeze dryers

Session 8

Fluidized bed drying: Introduction, construction and operational principles, types of fluidized bed dryers and selection.

Module 8 Fluidized Bed drying

Video Link: Fluidized bed dryer

Session 9

Microwave drying: Fundamental of microwave drying, Interaction of electric magnetic field with materials, microwave dryer, costing,

Module 9 Microwave drying

Video Link: Microwave drying

Session 10

Infrared drying: Basic principles, industrial drying applications, cost, Safety in microwave processing,

Module 10 Infrared drying

Session 11

Quality changes during drying and storage

Lecture: 11 Quality changes during drying and storage

Session 12

Cost-Estimation Methods for Drying.

Module 12 Cost estimation method for drying

Suggested Reference Books:

  1. D. Chavan and J.V. Patil. 2013. Industrial Processing of Fruits and Vegetables. Astral International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  2. Rajarathnam and R.S. Ramteke. 2011. Advances in Preservation and Processing Technologies of Fruits and Vegetables. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi.
  3. P. Srivastava and Sanjeev Kumar. 2002. Fruit & Vegetable Preservation: Principles and Practices, 3rd Ed. International Book Distribution Co., Delhi.
  4. Girdhari Lal, G.S. Siddappa and G.L. Tandon. 1959. Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables. ICAR, New Delhi.

Assessment

4 Assignments +1 internal test + 4 quizzes + 3 Practical test +1 final exam + Attendance          (15% +20%+10%+30% + 20% +5%)

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    Dr. Vivek Kumar

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    Dr. Vivek Kumar is currently working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Agricultural Engineering, School of Agricultural and Bioengineering, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from IIT Kharagpur in the field of Food Process Engineering. He has more than 10 years of research/teaching experience and […]