Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Teacher

Mr.Chandrasekhar Sahu

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : FUNDAMENTALS OF CROP PHYSIOLOGY

Code(Credit) : ASPH1201(2-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • To confer information to the understudies on various plant metabolic procedures and their functions in plants with special reference to agricultural and horticultural crops

Learning Outcomes

  • By the end of this course the students will
    i) Know the importance of Physiology in Agriculture and Horticulture
    ii) Have pinpoint information on Plant cell, Plant Growth Regulators,
    Growth analysis, use of growth parameters on Crop productivity
    iii) Get fundamental ideas on various basic plant metabolic functions such as
    Diffusion and Osmosis, Plant Water Relations, Mineral Nutrition,
    Photosynthesis, Respiration, Fat Metabolism, Plant Growth and
    Development.

Course Syllabus

Theory
• Introduction to crop physiology and its importance in Agriculture;
• Plant cell: an Overview;
• Diffusion and osmosis;
• Absorption of water,
• transpiration and Stomatal Physiology;
• Mineral nutrition of Plants: Functions and deficiency symptoms of nutrients, nutrient uptake mechanisms;
• Photosynthesis: Light and Dark reactions, C3, C4 and CAM plants;
• Respiration: Glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport chain; Fat Metabolism: Fatty acid synthesis and Breakdown;
• Plant growth regulators: Physiological roles and agricultural uses,
• Physiological aspects of growth and development of major crops: Growth analysis,
• Role of Physiological growth parameters in crop productivity
Practical
• Study of Plant Cell
• Study of Structure and Distribution of Stomata
• Study of Imbibition
• Demonstration on Plasmolysis and Deplasmolysis
• Measurement of Root Pressure
• Determination of Rate of Transpiration
• Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments through Paper Chromatography
• Study of Rate of Photosynthesis
• Study of Respiration
• Measurement of Relative Water Content of Leaf
• Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies for Mineral Nutrient Through Rapid Tissue Test
• Measurement of Photosynthetic CO2 Assimilation by Infra-Red Gas Analyzer (IRGA)

Session Plan

Session 1

Definition of Plant Physiology, Definition of Crop and Crop Physiology, Importance of crop physiology in agriculture and horticulture

Lecture-1 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Introduction and importance of Physiology Youtube link

Session 2

Plant cell: an Overview;
Definition and Discovery,Cell Theory, Cell Number, Size and Shape, Cell Structure and Functions

Lecture-2 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Discovery,Defination of Cell, Cell Theory Youtube Link

Cell Number, Shape and Size Youtube link

Session 3

Plant cell: an Overview; Cell Wall, Cell membrane, Protoplasm, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Chromosome(Vehicles of Heredity), Central Vacuole

Lecture-3 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Cell Wall Youtube link

Cell Membrane Youtube link

Protoplasm and cytoplasm youtube link

Nucleus Youtube link

Chromosome Youtube link

Vaccuole youtube link

Practice 1

Session 5

Diffusion and osmosis;Diffusion, Osmosis-Definition, Osmotic Pressure (OP), Turgor Pressure (TP) and Diffusion Pressure Deficit

Lecture-5 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology PPT

Youtube Links

Diffusion

Osmosis
OP,TP and DPD

Session 6

Diffusion and osmosis; Exosmosis,Endosmosis,Plasmolysis and Deplasmolysis,Advantages of plasmolysis,Significance of osmosis in plant cell,Difference between Osmosis and Diffusion,Imbibition

Lecture-6 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

Exosmosis and Endosmosis

Plasmolysis and Deplasmolysis

Importance of Osmosis

Difference between Osmosis and Diffusion

Imbibition

Practice-2

Study of Imbibition,Study of Osmosis,Study of Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis

Practice-2 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Youtube Links

Study of imbibition

Study of Osmosis

Plasmolysis and Deplasmolysis

Session 7

Absorption of water; Water and its importance, Soil Water,Organs involved in Water absorption,Mechanisms of Water absorption,Active absorption

Lecture-7 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

Water and its Importance

Soil water

Organs involved in absorption

Mechanism of Water absorption

Session 8

Absorption of water ; Non-osmotic theories,Passive Absorption,Difference between Active and Passive absorption,Apoplastic pathway,Symplastic pathway

Lecture-8 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

Difference between Active and Passive absorption of Water

Apoplast and Symplast Pathway

Practice-3

Measurement of Root Pressure, Measurement of Relative Water content of Leaf

Practice-3 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Youtube Link

Measurement of Root Pressure

Session 9

Transpiration and Stomatal Physiology; Definition,Difference between Transpiration and Evaporation,Difference between Transpiration and Guttation,Significance of transpiration,Mechanism of Transpiration,Kinds of Transpiration,Stomata,Types of Stomata

Lecture-9 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Youtube Links

Defination of Transpiration

Difference Between Transpiration and Evaporation

Difference Between Transpiration and Guttation

Significance of Transpiration

Types of Transpiration

Stomata and its Types

Session 10

Transpiration and Stomatal Physiology; Diffusion through stomatal pores,Mechanism of stomatal opening and closing,Plant Antitranspirants,Guttation; Mineral nutrition of Plants; Definition,Essential plant nutrients and criteria of essentiality,Classification of Nutrient:On the basis of Requirement,On the basis of functions

Lecture-10 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

Mechanism of Opening and Closing of Stomata

Plant Anti-Transpirant

Guttation

Defination,Criteria of Essentiality

Nutrient Classification

Practice-4

Study of Structure and Distribution of Stomata , Study of Rate of transpiration

Practice-4 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Measurment of Rate of Transpiration Youtube Link

Session 11

Mineral nutrition of Plants; Physiology of Nutrient uptake,Passive transport Mechanism-Diffusion:Simple diffusion,Facilitated Diffusion,Active transport Mechanism, Functions and Deficiency symptoms of Macro Elements- Nitrogen,PHOSPHORUS,POTASSIUM,CALCIUM,MAGNESIUM,ULPHUR

Lecture-11 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

Mechanism of Nutrient Absorption

Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Nitrogen

Functions and Deficiency symptoms of P and K

Functions and Deficiency symptoms of Ca and Mg

Functions and Deficiency symptoms of S

Session 12

Mineral nutrition of Plants Functions and Deficiency symptoms of Micro Elements- BORON,CHLORINE,COPPER,IRON,MAGANESE,MOLYBDENUM,ZINC; Photosynthesis; Defination, Photosynthetic apparatus,Photosynthetic pigments,Distribution of photosynthetic pigments in plant kingdom,Absorption spectra of chlorophyll,Transfer of light energy absorbed by accessory pigments to chlorophyll a

Lecture-12 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

Functions and Deficiency symptoms of Fe

Functions and Deficiency symptoms of B,Mo,Cu,Zn

Defination and Introduction to Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic Apparatus/Site of Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic Pigments and their Distribution

Absorption Spectrum and Light transfer

Practice-5

DIAGNOSIS OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES FOR MINERAL NUTRIENT THROUGH
RAPID TISSUE TEST

Practice-5 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Session 13

Photosynthesis Quantum requirement and quantum yield,Photo systems (Two pigment systems),Mechanism of photosynthesis- Light reaction or Primary photochemical reaction or Hill’s reaction,Absorption of light energy by chloroplast pigments,Transfer of light energy from accessory pigments to chlorophyll a,Activation of chlorophyll molecule by photon of light,Photolysis of water and O2 evolution (oxidation of water),Electron transport and production of assimilatory powers (NADPH2 and ATP),Cyclic electron transport and cyclic photophosphorylation,Non Cyclic,Comparison of cyclic and non cyclic electron transport and photophosphorylation in chloroplasts,Significance of light reaction

Lecture-13 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Youtube Links

Photo system,Quantum Reqirement, Quantum Yield

Mechanism of Photosynthesis- Light Reaction

Cyclic Photo Phosphorylation

Noncyclic Photophosphorylation

Difference between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation

Session 14

Photosynthesis; Dark reaction or Blackman’s reaction or Path of carbon in photosynthesis, Calvin cycle or C3 cycle,C4 cycle or Hatch and Slack pathway

Lecture-14 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Youtube Links

C3 Cycle

C4 Cycle

Session 15

Photosynthesis; Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) cycle,Comparison of the plants of C3 and C4 cycle,PHOTORESPIRATION; Respiration; Definition, Types of respiration, Respiratory substrate, Mechanism of Respiration

Lecture-15 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

CAM

Difference between C3 and C4

Photo Respiration

Defination and introduction to Respiration

Importance and types of Respiration

Respiratory Substrate

Practice-6

SEPARATION OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS THROUGH PAPER
CHROMATOGRAPHY,STUDY OF RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Practice-6 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Youtube Links

Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments through Paper Chromatography

Study of Rate of Photosynthesis

Practice-7

MEASUREMENT OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 ASSIMILATION BY INFRA-RED
GAS ANALYZER (IRGA)

Practice-7 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Session 16

Respiration; GLYCOLYSIS / EMBDEN – MEYER HOF – PARANAS (EMP) PATHWAY,KREBS’ CYCLE / CITRIC ACID CYCLE /TCA CYCLE

Lecture-16 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Link

Glycolysis

Krebs Cycle

Session 17

Respiration; "Terminal oxidation of the reduced coenzymes / electron transport system and oxidative
phosphorylation,Pentose phosphate pathway (ppp) / Hexose mono phosphate (hmp) shunt/
Phosphogluconate pathway / Warburg and Dicken’s pathway,Efficiency of respiration,Respiratory quotient,Energy budgeting"Fat metabolism, Difference between Respiration and Photosynthesis, Difference between Aerobic Respiration and Anaerobic Respiration

Lecture-17 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Energy budgeting

Respiratory quotient

Fat Metabolism

Difference between Respiration and Photosynthesis

Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Practice-8

Study of rate of Respiration

Practice-8 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Youtube Link

Study of rate Respiration

Session 18

Plant Growth Regulators; Introduction, Auxins, Physiological effects of auxin, Distribution of auxin in plants,Gibberellins,Physiological effects of gibberellins,Distribution of gibberellins in plant,CYTOKININS (Kinetin),Physiological effects of cytokinins

Lecture-18 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Youtube Links

Plant Growth Regulators Defination and basic concepts

Auxin Part-1

Auxin Part-2

GA

Cytokinin

Session 19

Plant Growth Regulators; Ethylene,Important physiological elects,Abscisic acid,Physiological effects,Growth retardants,Practical application of plant growth regulators in crop productivity;Plant Growth and Development; Plant growth,Growth regions,Phases of growth,Growth curve,Measurement of growth

Lecture-19 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

Ethylene

ABA

Plant Growth, Growth regions, Phases of growth

Growth curve

Session 20

Plant Growth and Development; Growth analysis,Role of Physiological growth parameters in crop productivity

Lecture-20 Fundamentals of Crop Physiology ppt

Youtube Links

All growth indices

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

Assistant professor, Department of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, MS Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha, India