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Milestones in microbiology.Contributions of Leeuwenhoek, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch,Alexander Flemming, Joseph Lister, Winogrdasky. Microscopy- Principle and constructionofBrightfield, dark field, phase contrast, stereo, SEM and TEM. Microbial taxonomy –Bergy’s andmolecular taxonomy Types of Microorganisms: Prokaryotes– Morphology and ultrastructure ofbacterial cell. General features, types and importance of viruses, cyanobacteria, actinomycetes,archae, mycoplasma, rickettsiae. Eukaryotes – Diagnostic features and importance of fungi andprotozoa. Microbial Techniques - Types of media, types of sterilization - physical and chemicalagents, cultivation of microorganisms, staining techniques – simple, differential, structuralstaining; enumeration of micro-organisms, culture preservation methods. Bacterial metabolism:Nutrient requirements, nutritional types, bacterial photosynthesis and their ecological significance.Microbial growth: Growth phases, measurement of cell growth, factors affecting growth- influenceof physico-chemical factors - pH, temperature, moisture, light, osmotic pressure, fermentation- types and significance. Microbial genetics- general principles, genetic recombination,transformation, transduction and conjugation.Plasmids- types and their importance. Mutation–types and significance. Microbial ecology: Introduction and types of interaction, extremophilesand their significance.
Aquatic Microbiology:Introduction and scope of aquatic microbiology, aquatic environmentas habitat for microorganisms - bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, parasites and viruses;distribution of microorganisms and their biomass in rivers, lakes, sea and sediment. Influenceof physical, chemical and biological factors on aquatic microbes. Microbial biofilms.Role ofmicrobes in the production and breakdown of organic matter.Role of microbes in sedimentationand mineralization process. Nutrient cycles-carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, iron, andmanganese cycles. Sewage microbiology, self purification in natural waters, sewage treatment,drinking water microbiology, sanitary quality of water for aquaculture, bioremediators.Economicsignificance of aquatic microbes.
Handling of microscopes, Wet mount, smear and hanging drop preparations Micrometry-Determination of size of micro organisms (ocular, stage micrometers). Tools and techniquesin sterilization methods:Filteration, dry heat, moist heat, chemical agents Cultivation technique:Media preparation, Isolation -pure culture, subculture. Observation of fungi, blue-green algae,and protozoans.Staining techniques for bacteria– simple, differential, structural and Biochemicaltests: Indole, methyl red, VogesProskauer, citrate test, oxidase test, catalase tests. Collectionof water and sediment samples for microbiological analysis, Winogradsky cylinder, Isolation,identification and enumeration of various groups of microorganisms from different water bodiesincluding aquaculture systems.
Study of bacteria involved in nutrient cycles. Biofilms, water testing for potability, enumeration of coliform. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria - antibiotic sensitivity test – disc diffusion method.
Brock Biology of Micro organisms - Michael T.Madigan, John M.Martnko, Jack Parker
Microbiology ----Lancing M.Prescott, John P Harley, Donald A. Klein
Microbiology – Michel J plelczar /Jr.E.C.S.Chan, Noel R.Krieg
Microbiology essentials and applications ---Larry Mc Kane / Judy Kandel
Fundamentals ,principles of bacteriology --- A.J.salle
General Microbiology --Hans G.Schlegel
Microbiology –A laboratory manual ----------James G.Cappuccine, Netelie Sherman
PDF link:Pure culture isolation