Fundamentals of Microbiology


Tasok Leya


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Course Name : Fundamentals of Microbiology

Code(Credit) : FSHM 1107 (2-1-0)

Course Objectives

  •  To impart knowledge on aquatic microorganisms with reference to their role in the aquatic environment and bioprospecting.
    To impart knowledge of the basic principles of bacteriology, virology, pathogenic microorganisms, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis.
    To acquire requisite skill in the use and care of basic microbiological equipment; performance of basic laboratory procedures in microbiology.

Learning Outcomes

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of bacterial cells and viruses.
    Students will be able to explain the processes used by microorganisms for their replication, survival, and interaction with their environment, hosts, and host populations;
    Students will know the theoretical basis of the tools, technologies and methods common to microbiology.

Course Syllabus


Milestones in microbiology.Contributions of Leeuwenhoek, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch,Alexander Flemming, Joseph Lister, Winogrdasky. Microscopy- Principle and constructionofBrightfield, dark field, phase contrast, stereo, SEM and TEM. Microbial taxonomy –Bergy’s andmolecular taxonomy Types of Microorganisms: Prokaryotes– Morphology and ultrastructure ofbacterial cell. General features, types and importance of viruses, cyanobacteria, actinomycetes,archae, mycoplasma, rickettsiae. Eukaryotes – Diagnostic features and importance of fungi andprotozoa. Microbial Techniques - Types of media, types of sterilization - physical and chemicalagents, cultivation of microorganisms, staining techniques – simple, differential, structuralstaining; enumeration of micro-organisms, culture preservation methods. Bacterial metabolism:Nutrient requirements, nutritional types, bacterial photosynthesis and their ecological significance.Microbial growth: Growth phases, measurement of cell growth, factors affecting growth- influenceof physico-chemical factors - pH, temperature, moisture, light, osmotic pressure, fermentation- types and significance. Microbial genetics- general principles, genetic recombination,transformation, transduction and conjugation.Plasmids- types and their importance. Mutation–types and significance. Microbial ecology: Introduction and types of interaction, extremophilesand their significance.

Aquatic Microbiology:Introduction and scope of aquatic microbiology, aquatic environmentas habitat for microorganisms - bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, parasites and viruses;distribution of microorganisms and their biomass in rivers, lakes, sea and sediment. Influenceof physical, chemical and biological factors on aquatic microbes. Microbial biofilms.Role ofmicrobes in the production and breakdown of organic matter.Role of microbes in sedimentationand mineralization process. Nutrient cycles-carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, iron, andmanganese cycles. Sewage microbiology, self purification in natural waters, sewage treatment,drinking water microbiology, sanitary quality of water for aquaculture, bioremediators.Economicsignificance of aquatic microbes.


Handling of microscopes, Wet mount, smear and hanging drop preparations Micrometry-Determination of size of micro organisms (ocular, stage micrometers). Tools and techniquesin sterilization methods:Filteration, dry heat, moist heat, chemical agents Cultivation technique:Media preparation, Isolation -pure culture, subculture. Observation of fungi, blue-green algae,and protozoans.Staining techniques for bacteria– simple, differential, structural and Biochemicaltests: Indole, methyl red, VogesProskauer, citrate test, oxidase test, catalase tests. Collectionof water and sediment samples for microbiological analysis, Winogradsky cylinder, Isolation,identification and enumeration of various groups of microorganisms from different water bodiesincluding aquaculture systems.

Study of bacteria involved in nutrient cycles. Biofilms, water testing for potability, enumeration of coliform. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria - antibiotic sensitivity test – disc diffusion method.


Brock Biology of Micro organisms - Michael T.Madigan, John M.Martnko, Jack Parker
Microbiology ----Lancing M.Prescott, John P Harley, Donald A. Klein
Microbiology – Michel J plelczar /Jr.E.C.S.Chan, Noel R.Krieg
Microbiology essentials and applications ---Larry Mc Kane / Judy Kandel
Fundamentals ,principles of bacteriology --- A.J.salle
General Microbiology --Hans G.Schlegel
Microbiology –A laboratory manual ----------James G.Cappuccine, Netelie Sherman

Session Plan

Session 1

Theory 1:Milestones in Microbiology

PDF link: FM ppt-1

Video link:Milestones in microbiology

Session 2

Theory 2: Microscopy

PDF link: FM ppt-2

Video link:Microscopy

Session 3

Theory 3: Microscopy

PDF link: FM ppt-3

Video link:Bright field microscopy

Session 4

Theory 4: Microscopy

PDF link: FM ppt-4

Video link:Phase contrast microscopy

Session 5

Theory 5: Microbial Taxonomy

PDF link: FM ppt-5

Video link:Microbial taxonomy

Session 6

Theory 6:  Microbial Taxonomy

PDF link: FM ppt-6

Video link:Microbial classification

Session 7

Theory 7: Types of Microorganisms

PDF link: FM ppt-7

Video link:Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes,

Session 8

Theory 8: Types of Microorganisms

PDF link: FM ppt-8

PDF link:Virus structure

Session 9

Theory 9: Types of Microorganisms

PDF link: FM ppt-9

Video link:Cyanobacteria

Session 10

Theory 10: Types of Microorganisms

PDF link: FM ppt-10

Video link:Fungi

Session 11

Theory 11: Microbial Techniques

PDF link: FM ppt-11

Video link:Bacteria preparation- hanging drop method

Session 12

Theory 12: Microbial Techniques- Types of microbiological media and their preparations

PDF link: FM ppt-12

Video link:Bacterial culture media

Session 13

Theory 13:  Microbial Techniques- Sterilization methods - Physical and Chemical

PDF link: FM ppt-13

Video link:Sterilization

Session 14

Theory 14: Microbial Techniques- Isolation of pure culture

PDF link:Pure culture isolation

Session 15

Theory 15: Microbial metabolism

PDF link: FM ppt-15

Video link:Microbial metabolism

Session 16

Theory 16: Microbial Growth

PDF link: FM ppt-16

Video link:Bacterial growth

Session 17

Theory 17: Microbial Genetics

PDF link: FM ppt-17

Video link:Microbial genetics

Theory 18: Microbial Genetics- Mutation: Types and their significance

PDF link: FM ppt-18

Video link:Mutation

Session 19

Theory 19: Microbial Ecology

PDF link: FM ppt-19

Video link:Microbial ecology

Session 20

Theory 20:  Aquatic Microbiology-  Aquatic microorganisms-Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, fungi

PDF link: FM ppt-20

Video link:Aquatic microbiololgy

Session 21

Theory 21:  Aquatic Microbiology-  Aquatic algae, parasites, and viruses

PDF link: FM ppt-21

Video link:Microorganisms

Session 22

Theory 22:  Aquatic Microbiology-  Influence of physical, chemical and biological factors on aquatic microbes

PDF link: FM ppt-22

Video link:Factors affecting bacterial growth

Session 23

Theory 23: Aquatic Microbiology-  Microbial bio-film

PDF link: FM ppt-23

Video link:Bio-film formation

Session 24

Theory 24:  Aquatic Microbiology-  Role of microbes in sedimentation and mineralization process

PDF link: FM ppt-24

Video link:
Mineralization process

Session 25

Theory 25: Aquatic Microbiology-  Nutrient cycles: Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulphur

PDF link: FM ppt-25

Video link:Nutrient cycles

Session 26

Theory 26:  Aquatic Microbiology-  Nutrient cycles: Phosphorus, iron and manganese cycles

PDF link: FM ppt-26

Video link:Phosphorus cycle

Session 27

Theory 27:  Aquatic Microbiology- Sewage microbiology

PDF link: FM ppt-27

Video link:Wastewater microbiology

Session 28

Theory 28:  Sewage treatment

PDF link: FM ppt-28

Video link:Sewage treatment

Session 29

Theory 29:  Sanitary quality of water for Aquaculture

PDF link: FM ppt-29

Video link:Water quality parameters

Session 30

Theory 30: Bioremediators

PDF link: FM ppt-30

Video link:Bioremediation

Session 31

Theory 31:  Economic significance of aquatic microbes

PDF link: FM ppt-31

Video link:Microbes of economic importance in Aquaculture

Session 32

Theory 32:  Commercially important microbes

PDF link: FM ppt-32

Video link:Commercially important microbes

Case Studies

Case Studies

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