Groundwater, Wells and Pumps


Shubham Kumar Sarangi


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Course Name : Groundwater, Wells and Pumps

Code(Credit) : CUTM1141 (2-1-0)

Course Objectives

1. To get concept of various surface and subsurface geophysical methods for groundwater explorations
2. To know about well hydraulics
3. To know about design principles of well
4. To understand concept for groundwater management and modeling

Learning Outcomes

These educational objectives are supported by a curriculum that seeks to have its graduates achieve the following student outcomes:
1. Various components of hydrologic cycle that affect the movement of water in the earth
2. Various Stream flow measurements technique
3. the concepts of movement of ground water beneath the earth
4. Apply math, science, and technology in the field of water resource Engineering.

Course Syllabus

-Occurrence and movement of ground water;

-Aquifer and its types

-Classification of wells, fully penetrating tubewells and open wells, familiarization of various types of bore wells
-Design of tubewell and gravel pack, installation of well screen,

-Well Completion, development and maintenance of well.


-Study of different drilling equipments

-Sieve analysis for gravel and well screens design


-Pumping System
-Groundwater hydraulics
-Confined and Unconfined Aquifer


-Coopers-Jacob method, Chow method

-Theis Recovery method

-Well losses and well efficiency

-Study of artificial ground water recharge structures

-Pumping systems: water lifting devices; different types of pumps

-Component and parts of centrifugal pumps.

-Working of Centrifugal pump

-Submersible pump


-Estimating ground water balance

-Study of radial flow and mixed flow centrifugal pumps,

-Installation of centrifugal pump; testing of centrifugal pump and study of cavitations


-Groundwater exploration techniques

-Hydraulic ram and its charcteristics

-Well Interference

-Pumps and types


-Study of Hydraulic ram

-Study of Propeller and axial pumps

Suggested Readings

Groundwater Hydrology, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York (International Book Distributing Company Lucknow). Michael AM. and Ojha TP. 2014.

Michael AM, Khepar SD. and SK Sondhi. 2008. Water Well and Pumps, 2nd Edition, Tata Mc-Graw Hill. Todd David Keith and Larry W. Mays. 2004. Michael AM, Khepar SD. and SK Sondhi. 2008.

Water Well and Pumps, 2nd Edition, Tata Mc-Graw Hill. Todd David Keith and Larry W. Mays. 2004. Michael AM, Khepar SD. and SK Sondhi. 2008.

Session Plan

Session 1

What is Groundwater?
Groundwater is broadly defined as the water present in the zone of saturation below the ground.

Introduction to groundwater

Session 2

For the development of ground water resources in a given area, knowledge of the occurrence and movement of ground water is required.In addition the hydrological parameters of the aquifers are needed to decide the location and type of wells.
The geological conditions of the area will influence the occurrence and movement of ground water.



Study of different drilling equipments

Session 3

Proper design of water wells (tubewells and open wells) is essential in order to obtain optimum quantity of groundwater economically from a given aquifer system.



-Sieve analysis for gravel and well screens design;

Session 4

After the construction of a pumping well, proper sanitary completion is necessary to produce safe water required for drinking and other purposes.


-Coopers-Jacob method, Chow method

Session 5

Gravel packing is a sand-control method used to prevent the production of formation sand. Gravel packing is used in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing, but at much lower pressures. Formation sand is produced from the breakdown of formations where wells are located.


-Theis Recovery method

Session 6

Lift irrigation requires that water be raised from its source to the field surface.
Whatever the source of water in a lift irrigation project, the efficiency of the system depends on the application of sound principles in the design and construction of utilization structure, usually the well, and the characteristics of the water lifting device in relation the source of water.Watershed investigations for planning and development.

Pumping systems


-Study of artificial recharge groundwater structures

Session 7

What is well hydraulics?

To understand he process in effect when one or more well are pumping from an aquifer. This is for instance considers the analysis of drawdown due to pumping with time and distance.

2. Importance of well hydraulics Groundwater withdrawal from aquifer are important to meet water demand


-Well losses and Well efficiency


Session 8

Confined aquifer & unconfined aquifer


-Coopers-Jacob method, Chow method

Session 9

Parts of a centrifugal pump

The main components in a pump are the casing, impeller, backing plate, shaft and shaft seal, and the motor adapter.


-Installation of centrifugal pump; testing of centrifugal pump and study of cavitations

Session 10

Working of a centrifugal pump

Session 11

A submersible pump, also called an electric submersible pump, is a pump that can be fully submerged in water. The motor is hermetically sealed and close-coupled to the body of the pump. A submersible pump pushes water to the surface by converting rotary energy into kinetic energy into pressure energy.


Session 12

Working of a submersible pump.

Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work moving the fluid. ... When a casing contains only one revolving impeller, it is called a single-stage pump. When a casing contains two or more revolving impellers, it is called a double- or multi-stage pump.

Session 13

Groundwater exploration techniques

Exploring the ground water by geophysical method is termed Ground water geophysics. methods which are useful in solving some of the problems of hydrogeology, are the Electrical, Seismic, Gravity, and Magnetic methods.


Theis Recovery method


Session 14

The primary difference between single and multistage pumps is their impellers and how this affects operation. Whereas a single stage pump has only one impeller rotating around the shaft, multistage pumps have two or more.

Session 15

A hydraulic ram, or hydram, is a cyclic water pump powered by hydropower. It takes in water at one "hydraulic head" (pressure) and flow rate, and outputs water at a higher hydraulic head and lower flow rate.


Session 16

Characteristic of Hydraulic ram

A hydraulic ram, or hydram, is a cyclic water pump powered by hydropower. ... The device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the input water that powers the pump to be lifted to a point higher than where the water originally started.

Session 17

Application of Hydraulic ram

It can be installed at any place which has a water flow. Hydraulic ram pumps prove very beneficial in the hilly areas where the amount of water flowing at a low level is needed to be raised to higher levels for domestic purposes and even for irrigation.

Session 18

Radial Flow: The radial flow impeller discharges the fluid radially at 90° to the shaft axis. Mixed Flow: The mixed flow impeller discharges fluid in a conical direction using a combined radial and axial pumping action

Session 19

The cases of well hydraulics considered so far have involved only one well pumping from an aquifer system. However, there are often several wells tapping the same aquifer and located within the radii of influence of the wells, which result in intersecting cones of depression.

Well Interference and Multiple Well Systems

Session 20

An axial flow pump has a propeller-type of impeller running in a casing. The pressure in an axial flow pump is developed by the flow of liquid over the blades of impeller. ... It allows the fluid to enter the impeller axially and discharge the fluid nearly axially. The propeller of an axial flow pump is driven by a motor.

5.Propeller pump and mixed flow pumps


-Study of propeller and axial flow pump.

Case Studies

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    Completed B.Tech(Ag. Engg.) and M.Tech(Ag.Engg.),SWCE in OUAT. Qualified ICAR-NET. Now working as an Assistant Professor in Agricultural Engineering.