Laser Technology

Teacher

Dr. Padmaja Patnaik

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Laser Technology

Code(Credit) : CUTM1414 (2-1-1)

Course Objectives

The aim of this course is

  • To acquire a thorough understanding of the theory of modern Laser Physics
  • understand different types of modern lasers and their applications
  • computationally verify material properties for Laser production.   

 

Learning Outcomes

After learning the course the students will be able to

  • describe and explain fundamental concepts in laser physics
  • compare the function and properties of a number of common laser
  • verify properties of materials used for laser production

Course Syllabus

Module-I 

Laser fundamentals: Spontaneous and stimulated emission, absorption, Einstein’s coefficients, active medium, population inversion, laser-pumping, laser gain, metastable state, condition for light amplification. solid state laser: Ruby laser.

Practice 1:

Operation of a Ddiode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser. Measure its efficiency and spiking effects to be  demonstrated or Any other Laser to explain the operation of Lasers

Assignment 1:

Neodymium glass lasers – construction, working, properties and applications.

Module-II

Liquid lasers: Principle and main components of laser, levels of laser action, continuous wave lasers, construction and working of dye laser.

Assignment 2: (Any one)

1.  Application of tuning in Dye laser astronomy as a laser guide star

2. Alexandrite lasers application in dermatology – working, properties and applications in industrial like medical field

3. Model-Locked Ring Dye laser application for optical data storage

Module-III

Gas Laser: Principle, working and usefulness of gas laser, He-Ne laser, lasing action in Ion lasers, construction and operation of ion lasers

Practice 2:

Determine the wavelength and angular spread of He-Ne laser using plane diffraction grating.

Practice 3:

Argon Ion laser spectrum- operating and selecting various wavelengths for a single line operation in an Argon laser

Assignment 3: (Any one)

1.  Application of Krypton ion laser  in medicine

2.  Application of Copper vapour laser for entertainment purposes

3. Application of He-Cadmium laser – construction, working, properties and applications

4. Industrial application of Carbon dioxide laser for cutting and drilling

5. Application of Excimers laser photolithography and medical purposes

Module-IV

Semiconductor laser: Characteristics of semiconductor lasers, semiconductor diode lasers

Practice 4:

Operating characteristics of a semiconductor diode lasers- measuring its threshold current, output power versus current etc.

Assignment 4: (Any one)

1. Application of heterojunction structures to optical devices

2. Application of Homojunction lasers

3. Application of quantum well lasers for applications in optical information processing

Module-V

Laser applications: Material processing with lasers, interaction mechanism, material processing mechanism.

Practice 5:

Drilling process with laser – Either Physical lab or virtual lab.

Practice 6:

Cutting and Welding process with laser – Either Physical lab or virtual lab.

Assignment 5:

Industrial application of laser - Material processing with lasers

Module-VI

Application of laser in medical science - Medical lasers, laser diagnostic, laser for general surgery, laser in medicine (elementary ideas only.)

Module-VII

Laser in optical communication: Optical source for fiber optical communication, essential characteristics of laser in fibre optic communication (elementary ideas only.)

Project: (Any one of the followings or as given by the course instructor)

1. Studying the properties of GaN for laser application by dDensity functional theory using Biovia Material Studio

2. Studying the properties of InGaN for laser application by density functional theory using Biovia Material Studio

3. Studying the properties of GaAs for Laser application by density functional theory using Biovia Material Studio

4. Studying the properties of AlGaAs for laser application by density functional theory using Biovia Material Studio

5. Studying the properties of “Tungsten oxide-based mediums” for laser application by using Biovia Material Studio

6. Studying the properties of “sapphire crystals usually doped with titanium particles” for laser application by using Biovia Material Studio

Textbook:

1. Laser Principles, Types and Application by KR Nambiar, New Age International.

2. Modern Spectroscopy by J Michael Hollas, Fourth Edition, John Wiley and Sons.

Reference Books:

1. Lasers Theory and Applications by K. Thyagarajan and A.K. Ghatak, Mcmillan (1981)

2. Laser Fundamentals, by William T. Silfvast, Cambridge University Press, 2008.

3. Principles of Lasers, by Orazio Svelto; Springer, 2009.

4. Laser Spectroscopy and Instrumentation by W. Demtroder.

5. Industrial Applications of Lasers, by K. Koebner (ed.), Wiley (1984).

Session Plan

Session 1

Radiation and waves, basic principles of laser, spontaneous emission-stimulated emission, absorption, Einstein’s coefficients

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHmGNDMV1cY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgzynezPiyc

https://nptel.ac.in/content/storage2/courses/117101054/downloads/lect7.pdf

Session 2

Active medium, population inversion, laser-pumping, laser gain, metastable state, condition for light amplification

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vs-_x5q1bJM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xp3s4Uuu0c0

https://www.slideshare.net/jithinmp/laser-ppt-by-jithin-mpamrita

Session 4

Practice 1: (2 hours)

Building and operating a Diode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser. Measure its efficiency and spiking effects to be  demonstrated or Any other Laser to explain the operation of Lasers

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XI18Is5Lp9I

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OlGBT28Dmj8

https://www.slideshare.net/jaydipkanpariya1/ndyag-laser-working-and-construction

Session 5

Assignment 1: (2 hours)

Neodymium Glass Lasers – construction, working, properties and applications

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XI18Is5Lp9I

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OlGBT28Dmj8

Session 6

Session 7

Session 9

Assignment: (2 hours)

(Any one)

1. Application of Tuning in Dye laser astronomy as a laser guide star

2. Alexandrite Lasers application in dermatology – Working, Properties and Applications in industrial like medical field

3. Model-Locked Ring Dye laser application for Optical Data Storage 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VZqtV4DigDU

http://dewan.buet.ac.bd/EEE6503/Reports/Report_Chap14_TunableDyeLasers.pdf

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1071885

Session 10

Gas Laser: Principle, working and usefulness of gas laser, He-Ne laser

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyY4PEpV2RQ

https://www.slideshare.net/Chuhdry/he-ne-lasers-1

Session 11

Lasing action in ion lasers, construction and operation of ion lasers.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSVzBWF07yY

Session 12

Practice2: (2 hours)

Determine the wavelength and angular spread of He-Ne laser using plane  diffraction grating.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-KNsGiVbeM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lf2Kk9fP4s8

Session 13

Practice 3: (2 hours)

Argon ion laser spectrum- operating and selecting various wavelengths for a single line operation in an Argon Laser.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EwI8cow17Uc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gY7TGcEIIb4

https://www.slideserve.com/satin/gas-lasers

Session 14

Assignment 3: (2 hours)

(Any one)

Application of Krypton ion laser  in medicine

Application of Copper vapour laser for entertainment purposes

Application of He-Cadmium laser – Working, Properties and Applications

Industrial application of Carbon dioxide laser for cutting and drilling

Application of excimers laser Photolithography and medical purposes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fGntBiyC8iw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_biQpljz7A

https://slideplayer.com/slide/14556731/

https://www.slideshare.net/drkevinniksarli/what-is-an-excimer-laser

Session 15

Semiconductor Laser: Principle of semiconductor laser diode, threshold frequency, difference between a diode and laser diode

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpePZjTXqRw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aHD0JSE2f1A

https://www.slideshare.net/ashiqshariff/semiconductor-laser-59316180

Session 16

Session 18

Practice 4: (2 hours)

Operating characteristics of a semiconductor diode lasers- measuring its threshold current, output power versus current etc.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6RE9iznfERo

https://www.newport.com/medias/sys_master/images/images/he9/hd7/8797049520158/AN05-Laser-Diode-Characteristics-Overview.pdf

Session 19

Assignment 4: (2 hours)

(Any one)

  • Application of heterojunction structures to optical devices
  • Application of Homojunction lasers
  • Application of Quantum well lasers for applications in optical information processing

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ih0G46AiP-M

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCfW8Lkb9OE

https://www.slideshare.net/ashiqshariff/semiconductor-laser-59316180

Session 21

Interaction mechanism, lattice heating, material processing mechanism.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ZcCO5VyNLM

https://www.io.csic.es/Web_GPL/personal_pages/Jan/thesis/Chap1.pdf

Session 25

Assignment 5: (2 hours)

Industrial application of laser - Material processing with lasers

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_8LNjaWAv9o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhZ09kDvoCc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vvMF2JOp-4U

Session 29

Assignment 6: (2 hours)

(Any one)

  • Studying the properties of GaN for laser application by density functional theory using Biovia Material Studio
  • Studying the properties of InGaN for laser application by density functional theory using Biovia Material Studio
  • Studying the properties of GaAs for laser application by density functional theory using Biovia Material Studio
  • Studying the properties of AlGaAs for laser application by density functional theory using Biovia Material Studio

Session 30

Optical communication: Optical source for fiber optical communication, essential characteristics of Laser in fibre optic communication

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxITpsvcj8s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOoNoe9BQp8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoGhOgr0boQ

http://www.nitttrchd.ac.in/sitenew1/app_sc/ppts/ofc/4.%20Optical%20Sources_RB.pdf

Session 31

Optical communication: Optical source for fiber optical communication, essential characteristics of laser in fibre optic communication

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxITpsvcj8s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOoNoe9BQp8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoGhOgr0boQ

http://www.nitttrchd.ac.in/sitenew1/app_sc/ppts/ofc/4.%20Optical%20Sources_RB.pdf

Session 32

Optical Communication: Optical source for fiber optical communication, essential characteristics of laser in fibre optic communication

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxITpsvcj8s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOoNoe9BQp8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoGhOgr0boQ

http://www.nitttrchd.ac.in/sitenew1/app_sc/ppts/ofc/4.%20Optical%20Sources_RB.pdf

Session 33

Assignment 6: (2 hours)

(Any one)

  • Studying the properties of “Tungsten oxide-based mediums” for Laser application by using Biovia Material Studio
  • Studying the properties of “sapphire crystals usually doped with titanium particles” for Laser application by using Biovia Material Studio

Our Main Teachers

Dr. Padmaja Patnaik

Associate Professor in School of Applied Sciences, Department of Physics
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Dr. Padmaja Patnaik has done her PhD in Physics from IITB, Mumbai under the guidance of Dr Gautam Mukhopadhya and Dr Prabhakar P Singh of IITB, Mumbai. She focuses on the application of theory behind many scientific research and applications in the field of Physics and Material Science to solve modern day problems and foster […]