Modern and Applied Analytical Forensic Chemistry

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Shruti Rajwar

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Course Name : Modern and Applied Analytical Forensic Chemistry

Code(Credit) : CUTM1649(4-2-0)

Course Objectives

  • This course aims to build in students both theoretical knowledge and practical application of forensic chemistry such as investigation of arson cases, analysis of samples.
  • food adulteration and their detection.
  • Analysis of petroleum products

Learning Outcomes

  • After completing this course students will have theoretical and practical knowledge of Forensic Chemistry.

Course Syllabus

UNIT-I

Forensic nuclear chemistry

Introduction to nuclear forensics, nuclear threats, Nuclear explosive devices, Radioactivity, Radioactive decay rates and Half lives, Methods of detection and measurement of radio actives (G.M and Scintillation Counter). Applications of Radioisotopes.

Activation analysis:

Neutron activation analysis, principle, technique, applications and steps involved in neutron activation analysis.

Isotope dilution analysis:

Principle, types of isotope dilution analysis, typical applications of isotope dilution analysis.

UNIT-II

Forensic Drug Chemistry

Introduction to Drugs, Controlled Substance Act, Forensic examination of drugs/Narcotics (Cannabis), Phenethylamines (Amphetamine, Methamphetamine), Hydroxyl derivative (Ephedrine) Ketone Derivative (Cathinone), Methoxy Derivative (Mescaline) Tertiary Amines (Cocaine and Opiates) Tryptamines(Psilocin and Psilocybin) Anabolic Steroids, Miscellaneous Controlled Substances (Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, GHB, Ketamine and LSD)Sample Preparation, Extraction Techniques- Chemical-color test, Microcrystal techniques and other instrumental techniques involved in analysis.

UNIT-III

Petroleum Chemistry

Paraffins, , Iso-olefins, Olefin Hydrocarbons, Naphthenes,Cycloparaffins or Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Sulphur Compounds, Nitrogen Compounds, Oxygen Compounds, Organo-Metallic Hydrocarbons; H/C Ratio of Hydrocarbons;Physical Properties of Petroleum Products : Density, Viscosity, Surface Tension, Color, Fluorescence, Cloud Point, Pour Point, Aniline Point, smoke point, boiling point, Optical Properties, Flash Point, Refractive Index and Calorific Value, Determination of Cetane and Octane number, Analytical Techniques: Quantitative and Qualitative Steps in Analysis of Petroleum

Fire Chemistry

Scientific Investigation of Fire, NEPA 921 and NEPA 1033, The chemistry and physics of combustion, Dynamics of Fire, Development of fire patterns, Separation and analytical techniques of ignitable liquid residues, Field tests, Interpretation of Data Obtained from Fire Debris, Quality Assurance in Fire debris Analysis, Report Writing and Court Testimony.

UNIT-IV

Explosives Chemistry

Introduction and assessment of explosives , Oxygen balance, Explosive Power Index, Heat and Temperature of Explosion, Pressure of explosion, Mechanism of Ignition and hot spot formation. Thermal decomposition , physical and chemical aspects of combustion, Deflagration and Detonation, Kinetics of Explosive Reactions, Analysis of low and high explosives by different instrumental techniques, Quality control, Proficiency Testing, Interpretation and Significance of Results

Chemical Warfare Agents

Classification, physical and biochemical properties, toxic effects detection by Biosensors and various instrumental Techniques

UNIT-V

Food Chemistry

Analysis of Lipids and fats: Physical examination of lipids, Chemical examination of lipids (Acid value, Saponification value, Ester value, Acetyl value, Iodine value), Test for hydrogenated oils and fats, Detection and Determination of rancidity, Analysis of butter and butter fats, Analysis of adulterated and non-adulterated oils

Analysis of dairy products: Milk and its products.

Reference Books :

  • Klaassen, C. D.,:Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Sciences of Poisons, 5th ed, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
  • Moffat, A.C.: Osselton, D. M. Widdop, B.: Clarke’s Analysis of Drugs and Poisons in Pharmaceuticals, body fluids and postmortem material, 3rd ed., Pharmaceutical Press2004.
  • Bogusz, M. J., Hand Book of Analytical Separations, Vol. 2: Forensic Sciences, 1st ed., Elsevier Sciences, 2000.
  • Siegel, J.A., Saukko, P. J., Knupfer, G.,: Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciencess (Vol3), Academic Press, 2000.
  • Rang, P.H., Dale, M.M., Ritter, M.J.: Pharmacology, 4th, Harcourt/Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
  • Paranjape, H.M., Bothara, G.K., Jain, M.M.: Fundamentals of Pharmacology, 1st, Nirali Prakashan, 1990.
  • Budhiraja, R.D.: Elementary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Popular Prakashan, 2nd, 1999.
  • Wiseman, H and Henry J.: Management Of Poisoning, A Handbook for Healthcare workers, 1st, A.I.T.B.S, 2002
  • Hardman, J. G. and Limbird, L. E.,: Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics, 9th edn., McGraw-Hill, 1996Laaboratory procedure Manual, Forensic Toxicology: DFS, 2005
  • Sunshine, I ; Methods for Analytical Toxicology, CRC Presss USA (1975)
  • Cravey, R.H; Baselt, R.C.: Introduction to Forensic Toxicology , Biochemical Publications, Davis, C.A. (1981)
  • Stolmen, A.; Progress in Chemical Toxicology: Academic Press, New York (1963)
  • Modi, Jaisingh, P.; Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence& Toxicology, M.M. Tripathi Publication (2001)
  • Eckert; An Introduction to Forensic Sciences, CRC Press
  • Pillay, V. V.; Handbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Paras Pub., 2001
  • Curry, A. S: Poison Detection in Human Organ
  • James, H.  and  Nordby,  J.  J.:  Forensic  Sciences:  An  Introduction  to  Scientific  and Investigative Techniques, 2003.
  • Saferstein, R: Criminalistics - An Introduction to Forensic Sciences, Prentice Hall, 1995.
  • Sarkar, S: Fuels and Combustion, Orient Longman, 1990
  • Verma, R. M: Analytical Chemistry – Theory and Practice, CBS Pub., 1994
  • Svehla, G. Ed.: Vogel’s Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, Longman, 1998.
  • Bassett: Vogel’s Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, Longman, 1978
  • Vogel, A. I: Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry including Qualitative Organic Analysis, ELBS, 1971.
  • Skoog, D. A., West, D. M. and Holler, F. J: Analytical Chemistry: An Introduction, Saunders College, 1994.
  • Siegel, J. A, Saukko, P. J. and Knupfer, G. C: Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciencess, Academic Press, 2000.
  • Townsends, A. (Ed): Encyclopedia of Analytical Sciences, Academic Press, 2005.
  • Beveridge, A: Forensic Investigation of Explosives, Taylor & Francis, 2000.
  • Yallop, H. J: Explosion Investigation, Forensic Sciences Society & Scottish Academic Press, 1980.
  • Narayanan, T. V: Modern Techniques of Bomb Detection and Disposal, R. A. Security System, 1995.
  • Yinon, J. and Zitrin, S: The Analysis of Explosives, Oxford: Pergamon, 1981
  • An Introduction to Physics and chemistry of Petroleum Kinghorn: Introduction to Petrochemicals Sukumar Maiti
  • W.Waples : Geochemistry in Petroleum Exploration
  • L.Waddams : Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology Chemicals from Petroleum
  • Day& Underwood :Analytical Chemistry
  • J. Arnikar Essentials of Nuclear Chemistry, 4th Edition Wiley Eastern (1987).
  • J. M. Bowen. Buttler and Tanner Chemical Applications of Radioisotopes, (1969).
  • G Friedlander, T. W. Kennedy, E. S. Macias and J. M. Miller, Introduction of Nuclear and Radiochemistry, 3rd Edition, John Wiley (1981).
  • D.Vowels and D.W: Experiments in Environmental chemistry.

Session Plan

Session 1

UNIT-I

Forensic nuclear chemistry

Introduction to nuclear forensics,

Nuclear threats

https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/multimedia/videos/tracing-radioactive-material-with-nuclear-forensics

Session 2

Nuclear explosive devices

Session 4

Methods of detection and measurement of radio actives (G.M and Scintillation Counter)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyyIuiV4rKE

Session 5

Activation analysis:

Neutron activation analysis, principle, technique, applications and steps involved in neutron activation analysis.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KiOzQ-K0gEQ

Session 6

Isotope dilution analysis:

Principle, types of isotope dilution analysis, typical applications of isotope dilution analysis.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4a1eUWG9WfY

Session 7

Forensic Drug Chemistry

Introduction to Drugs,

Controlled Substance Act

Controlled-Substances-Procedures-Manual

https://www.slideshare.net/DaryaDaoud1/controlled-drugs-74983198

Session 8

Forensic examination of drugs/Narcotics (Cannabis), Phenethylamines (Amphetamine, Methamphetamine), Hydroxyl derivative (Ephedrine)

amphetamine

cannabis

Session 9

Forensic examination of drugs/Narcotics: Ketone Derivative (Cathinone), Methoxy Derivative (Mescaline), Tryptamines (Psilocin and Psilocybin)

Session 10

Forensic examination of drugs/Narcotics: Tertiary Amines (Cocaine and Opiates), Anabolic Steroids

cocaine

Session 11

Forensic examination of drugs/Narcotics: Miscellaneous Controlled Substances (Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, GHB, Ketamine and LSD)

Barbiturate detection using TLC

barbiturates

ketamine

lsd

Session 12

Sample Preparation, Extraction Techniques- Chemical-color test

Session 13

Microcrystal techniques and other instrumental techniques involved in analysis.

microcrystalline test in forensic drug analysis

Session 14

Petroleum Chemistry

Paraffins, , Iso-olefins, Olefin Hydrocarbons, Naphthenes

Session 15

Cycloparaffins or Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Sulphur Compounds, Nitrogen Compounds

Session 16

Oxygen Compounds, Organo-Metallic Hydrocarbons; H/C Ratio of Hydrocarbons

Session 17

Physical Properties of Petroleum Products : Density, Viscosity, Surface Tension, Color, Fluorescence, Cloud Point, Pour Point, Aniline Point, smoke point

Manual - petroleum

Session 18

Physical Properties of Petroleum Products : boiling point, Optical Properties, Flash Point, Refractive Index and Calorific Value, Determination of Cetane and Octane number

Manual - petroleum

Session 19

Analytical Techniques: Quantitative and Qualitative Steps in Analysis of Petroleum

Session 20

Fire Chemistry

Scientific Investigation of Fire, NEPA 921 and NEPA 1033

FIRE INVESTIGATION

Session 21

The chemistry and physics of combustion

INTRODUCTION TO FIRE -CAUSES AND BEHAVIOUR

Session 22

Dynamics of Fire, Development of fire patterns

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SmmAh87Anh8

Session 23

Separation and analytical techniques of ignitable liquid residues

Session 24

Field tests, Interpretation of Data Obtained from Fire Debris

Fire Arson Investigation Manual 2002

Session 25

Quality Assurance in Fire debris Analysis, Report Writing and Court Testimony

Session 26

Explosives Chemistry

Introduction and assessment of explosives , Oxygen balance

Introduction and detection of explosives compounds

Session 27

Explosive Power Index, Heat and Temperature of Explosion, Pressure of explosion, Mechanism of Ignition and hot spot formation

Session 28

Thermal decomposition , physical and chemical aspects of combustion, Deflagration and Detonation

Session 29

Kinetics of Explosive Reactions, Analysis of low and high explosives by different instrumental techniques

Introduction and detection of explosives compounds

Session 30

Quality control, Proficiency Testing, Interpretation and Significance of Results of Explosives

Session 31

Chemical Warfare Agents

Classification, physical and biochemical properties

Session 32

Toxic effects detection by Biosensors and various instrumental Techniques to detect chemical warfare agents

Session 33

UNIT-V

Food Chemistry

Analysis of Lipids and fats: Physical examination of lipids

Note : Chemistry of fatty acids

Session 34

Chemical examination of lipids (Acid value, Saponification value, Ester value, Acetyl value, Iodine value)

Session 35

Test for hydrogenated oils and fats

Session 36

Detection and Determination of rancidity

Session 37

Analysis of butter and butter fats

Session 38

Analysis of adulterated and non-adulterated oils

Note : Examination of Edible Oils

Session 39

Analysis of dairy products: Milk and its products

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