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• Molecular biology deals with nucleic acids and proteins and how these molecules
interact within the cell to promote proper growth, division, and development
• This course will emphasize the molecular mechanisms of DNA replication, repair,
protein synthesis etc.
Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
• Gain an understanding of chemical nature of biological macromolecules and
molecular processes that occur in and between cells
• Learn skills required to effectively do scientific research
• Pursue higher studies to get employability opportunity
Nucleic acids: Carriers of genetic information: Historical perspective; DNA as the carrier of genetic information: Griffith’s, Hershey & Chase, Avery, McLeod & McCarty, Fraenkel-Conrat’s experiment.
1. Safety guide lines and regulations in Laboratory of molecular biology
2. Reagent and solution preparation and micropipetting excercise
The Structures of DNA and RNA/Genetic Material: DNA Structure: Watson and Crick model of DNA, Salient features of double helix, Types of DNA, Types of genetic material, denaturation and renaturation, cot curves
3. Isolation of DNA from leaves
4. Isolation of DNA from ripe banana
5. DNA estimation by diphenylamine reagent
6. DNA estimation by UV Spectrophotometry
7. DNA estimation by Witham et. al.(1971) method
Organization of DNA: Prokaryotes, Viruses, Eukaryotes.
Organelle DNA: Mitochondria and chloroplast DNA;
The Nucleosome: Chromatin structure, Euchromatin, Heterochromatin: Constitutive and Facultative heterochromatin; RNA Structure
8. Structure of DNA through photographs
The replication of DNA: Chemistry of DNA synthesis (Kornberg’s discovery); General principles –bidirectional, semiconservative and semi discontinuous replication, RNA priming; Various models of DNA replication, including rolling circle, θ (theta) mode of replication, replication of linear ds-DNA, replication of the 5’end of linear chromosome; Enzymes involved in DNA replication.
Central dogma and genetic code:The Central Dogma (Adaptor hypothesis and discovery of mRNA template);
Genetic code: Deciphering & salient features of genetic code
9. Study of Rolling circle DNA replication mechanisms through photographs
10. Study of Theta model of DNA replication mechanisms through photographs
11. Study of semi-discontinuous DNA replication mechanisms through photographs
Transcription: Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Principles of transcriptional regulation
Prokaryotes: Regulation of lactose metabolism and tryptophan synthesis in E.coli.
Eukaryotes: transcription factors; Gene silencing.
Processing and modification of RNA: Split genes:concept of introns and exons, removal of introns,spliceosome machinery, splicing pathways, group I and group II intron splicing, alternative splicing eukaryotic mRNA processing(5’ cap, 3’ polyA tail); Ribozymes; RNA editing and mRNA transport.
12. Study of Splicing mechanism in group I & group II introns
Translation: Ribosome structure and assembly, mRNA; Charging of tRNA, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases;
Various steps in protein synthesis: proteins involved in initiation, elongation and termination of polypeptides;Inhibitors of protein synthesis; Post- translational modifications of proteins.
1. N. Arumugam,(2012) Molecular Biology, Saras Publication
2. Verma P.S. Agarwal V.K. (2010) Molecular Biology, S.Chand & Co.
1. Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J., Snustad, D.P. (1991). Principles of Genetics, John Wiley & sons, India. 8th edition.
2. Watson J.D., Baker, T.A., Bell, S.P., Gann, A., Levine, M., Losick, R. (2007). Molecular Biology of the Gene, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, CSHL Press, New York, U.S.A. 6th edition.
Hershey-Chase experiments: DNA as the genetic material
<a href="https://www.slideshare.net/SamPandian/hershey-and-chase" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank
Practice 1 (2 hours)
Safety guide lines and regulations in Laboratory of molecular biology
Organization of DNA: Prokaryotes, Viruses
Types of Chromatin: Euchromatin, Heterochromatin, Difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin
Organelle DNA: Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA
The replication of DNA: Mechanisms of DNA replication, Chemistry of DNA synthesis (Kornberg’s discovery)
Arthur Kornberg discovered (the first) DNA polymerase-E notes
Various models of DNA replication : Rolling circle model of DNA replication
<a href="Rolling circle-Youtube
θ (theta) model of DNA replication: Mechanism and steps
Enzymes involved in DNA replication: Types of enzymes at different stages
Practice 10 (2 hours)
Study of Rolling circle DNA replication mechanisms through photographs
Processing and modification of RNA: Split genes-concept of introns and exons, removal of introns,spliceosome machinery
Splicing pathways: Group I and group II intron splicing, alternative splicing
Translation: Ribosome structure and assembly, mRNA, Charging of tRNA, aminoacyltRNAsynthetases
Inhibitors of protein synthesis
<a href="https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Book%3A_Microbiology_(Boundless)/13%3A_Antimicrobial_Drugs/13.2%3A_Functions_of_Antimicrobial_Drugs/13.2D%3A_Inhibiting_Protein_Synthesis" rel="noopener noreferrer"
Post-translational modifications of proteins: Types
Dr. Sagarika Parida has completed her research fellowship from NRRI, ICAR, Cuttack and has been awarded the Ph. D. degree in Botany from Utkal University. She has worked as Post Doctoral Fellow in IMMT, CSIR, Bhubaneswar. The focus of her research work has been on microbiology, integrated pest and disease management and herbal drug standardization […]