Plant breeding and Genetics




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Course Name :
Plant breeding and Genetics

Code(Credit) : CUTM1440(3-1-0)

Course Objectives

• This course examines the application of genetic principles to plant improvement.
• Topics include breeding objectives, mating systems, selection, testing and germplasm maintenance of horticultural and crop plants.

Learning Outcomes

The anticipated knowledge, skills and/or attitude to be developed by the student are:

1. Describe sources and types of genetic variation and explain their importance for plant improvement.

2. Locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information relevant to plant breeding.
3. Carry out specific plant breeding activities, such as selection of parental germplasm, servation and recording of phenotypic variation and selection among progeny.

Course Syllabus

Genetics and Plant Breeding
Module-I Genetics:
Gene concept, allelism and fine structure of gene. Mendelism and deviation of mendelian ratios, epistasis, linkage and crossing over. Incomplete and complete linkage.

Practice: Demonstration of genetic principles using laboratory organisms.
Module-II Genome mapping:
Sex-linked inheritance, Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome organization, Maternal effect, genome imprinting, two point cross, three point test cross and chromosome mapping, tetrad analysis, extra chromosomal inheritance.Cytoplasmic male sterility.

Chromosomal aberrations

Structural aberration: duplication, deficiency, inversion and translocations heterozygotes; numerical chromosome aberrations: aneuploids: trisomics and monosomics; euploids: autopolyploids, allopolyploids, role polyploidy in speciation with reference to triticum and brassica. Polyploids, haploids, aneuploids and their utility. Chromosome variation and evolution.

Practice: Induction of Polyploidy by Colchine.

Module-IV Mutagenesis:
DNA damage and repair mechanisms, Spontaneous and induced mutations and their molecular mechanisms, physical and chemical mutagens, transposable elements and mechanism of transposition.
Module V: Protein engineering
Protein engineering and site directed mutagenesis. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms.
Module VI: Introduction to breeding techniques:
Breeding methods for self & Cross pollinated crops. Self-incompatibility and male sterility in crop plants. Selection; Pureline & mass selection. Line, pedigree, bulk method. Single seed descent & multiline method.
Practice: 1. Demonstration of Pedigree analysis.
2. Learning technique in hybrid seed production using male sterility in field crop.
3. Studying the pollen grain size and germination in various crops - preparation of temporary and permanent slides.

Module VII: Special breeding techniques:
Hybrid breeding and genetic basis of heterosis. Ideotype breeding. Mutation breeding. Molecular breeding (Marker assisted selection & Gene Pyramiding). Genomics Assisted breeding. QTL mapping. Genome wide association studies.
Practice: Demonstration of mutation breeding.
Text Books & Reference Book:
1. Lewin, B. (2004). Gene VIII. Person-Prentice Hall, London.
2. Pierce, B. A. (2006). Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. W. H. Freeman, New York.
3. George Acquaah, "Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding ". Wiley Blackwell.
4. Allard RW. 1981. Principles of Plant Breeding. John Wiley & Sons.
5. Chopra VL. 2004. Plant Breeding. Oxford & IBH.
6. Gupta SK. 2005. Practical Plant Breeding.Agribios.

Session 3 (Practice-1)

Session 8

Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome organization and extra chromosomal inheritance.

Session 13 (Practice-2)

Session 17

Mutation and types(Spontaneous and induced) and theeir molecuar mechanism.

Session 22

Session 23

Session 24 (Practice-3)

Studying the pollen grain size and germination in various crops - preparation of temporary and permanent slides.

Session 26 (Practice-4)

Learning technique in hybrid seed production using male sterility in field crop.
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session 29 (Practice-5)

Demonstration of Pedigree analysis.

Session 33 (Practice-6)

Demonstration of mutation breeding.

Session 34

Case Studies

Case Studies

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    Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, School of Applied Science, Centurion University of Technology and Management

    Have specialization in Biochemistry and Molecular biology. Qualified GATE and NET. Research interest in Biochemistry, Microbiology and taxonomy. Teaching expertise in subject Cell biology, molecular biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Plant physiology and metabolism.