Optics and Optical fibres

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Subhraraj Panda

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Core Courses

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Course Name: Optics and Optical fibres

Code(Credit) : CUTM1007(2-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • To train the students for Optics and the applications of laser, and optical fiber in the field of engineering and technology.
  • To learn and practice the techniques used by an optical phenomenon so that these can be applied to actual field studies.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to

  • Understand optical phenomena.
  • understand the basic knowledge of, laser, and optical fiber and instrumentation involved.
  • Understand optical fiber principle, operations, and its applications.

Course Syllabus

Module I: Reflection and Refraction (Derivation is not required)                                

Reflection at a plane surface, reflection at spherical mirrors, Paraxial rays and approximation. Sign convention, Location of the image formation, Spherical mirror equation, Refraction, Total internal reflection, Dispersion by a prism, Refraction through a prism.

Practice: 1

To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a traveling microscope.

Module II: Lenses (Derivation is not required                                                                   

Definition, Types of Lenses, Terminology associated with the Lens, Sign Convention, Location of the image formation by graphical method for Lenses, Lens formula.

Practice: 2

To determine the dispersive power and Cauchy constants of the material of a prism using mercury source.

Module III: Interference (Derivation is not required)                                                     

Superposition principle, the definition of Interference, Coherence, Young’s double-slit experiment, Newton’s rings theory- Determination of wavelength of light.

Practice: 3

Newtons Ring,s-Refractive index of the liquid

Module IV: Diffraction and Polarization  (Derivation is not required)                       

Types of diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction at a single sit, Diffraction at N-parallel slits (plane diffraction grating).Polarisation, Types of polarized light and their representation, Brewster LawTo verify Brewster's law and to find Brewster's angle. Malus Law, polarization by double refraction, polarimeter, Applications of polarized light.

Practice: 4

To find the grating element of a plane transmission diffraction grating.

Module V: Optical Properties and Laser                                             

Scattering, refraction, reflection, absorption & transmission, Introduction to optoelectronics, Concept of Light Emitting Diode, Stimulated and spontaneous emission, Basic principle of Lasers, Population inversion, Laser Pumping, Different levels of the laser system, Ruby Laser, Applications of Lasers (Medicine, Metrology, Defenses, Nuclear energy, in communication, in the consumer electronics industry)

Practice: 5

Wave length of LASER source by diffraction grating method

Module VI: Optical Fibers                                                                     

Introduction to fiber optics, the structure of optical fibers, classification of optical fibers on the variation of refractive index, Classification of optical fibers on the variation of the mode of transmission/core diameter, Numerical Aperture, Acceptance angle. Principle of optical fibers communication, optical communication (block diagram only),

Practice: 6

To find the numerical aperture of a given optic fiber and hence to find its acceptance angle.

 Module VII: Optical Fibers                                                                                            

Attenuation in optical fibers (Qualitative only-Scattering losses, Absorption losses, bending loses). Fiber Materials-Glass fibers, Plastic fibers, Light sources for fiber optics,V-number of an optical fiber, optical fiber cables design, optical fiber connection, fiber splices, fiber connectors.Application of optical fibers- Cable TV, Networking, Power companies, Imaging,Sensors, Medical (Dental surgery, Endoscopy, Surgery)

Practice: 7

Measurement of bending loss.

Text Books:

  1. A Text-Book of Optics by M.N. Avadhanulu, Brij Lal, N. Subrahmanyam, S Chand; 23rd Rev. Edn. [Module I&II]
  2. Engineering Physics, by D.Thirupathi Naidu, M.Veeranjaneyulu, V.G.S Book links,2017.[Module-III,IV]
  3. Principles of Engineering Physics-2 by Md.Khan, S.Panigrahi, Cambridge University Press 2016. [module-V, VI&VII]

Reference Books:

     1. Optics by Ajoy Ghatak, McGraw Hill Education; 6 edition, 2017.

     2.  Physics-I for engineering degree students byB.B. Swain and K.Jena.

     3.Concepts in Engineering Physics by I Md. N. Kha, 2016.

Session 2

Paraxial rays and approximation. Sign convention, Location of the image formation, Spherical mirror equation,

https://www.slideshare.net/negi4229/image-fomation-by-sperical-mirror

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPYlVBB8gyY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b-9qgQyirvk

Session 4

Practice-1(2hours)

To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a traveling microscope.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jn_IblEhTpc

Session 5

Definition, Types of Lenses, Terminology associated with the Lens, Sign Convention

https://www.slideshare.net/itutor/lenses-22475464

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJ6aB5ULqa0

Session 6

Location of the image formation by graphical method for Lenses, Lens formula.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FxQQ6fILi3k

https://www.slideshare.net/felixbunagan/image-formation-in-lens

Session 7

Practice-2(2hours)

To determine the dispersive power and Cauchy constants of the material of a prism using mercury source.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjbjiAwKpyo

Session 8

Superposition principle, the definition of Interference, Coherence

https://www.slideshare.net/makadelhi/superposition-principle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CAe3lkYNKt8

Session 10

Practice: 3(2hours)

Newton's Rings-Refractive index of the liquid.

http://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=189&sim=1520&cnt=1

Session 11

Types of diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction at a single sit,

https://www.slideshare.net/insighter007/diffraction-7787543 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4bCUTLWyicM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9xx3pXFW-g

Diffraction at N-parallel slits (plane diffraction grating)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6dZjuw1KUo

Session 12

Practice: 4(2hours)

To find the grating element of a plane transmission diffraction grating.

Session 13

Session 15

Scattering, refraction, reflection, absorption & transmission, Introduction to optoelectronics, Concept of Light Emitting Diode

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOsro2kGjGc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yHJ_X_lXtB8

https://www.slideshare.net/ChintanMorsiya/optical-properties-71404985

Session 16

Stimulated and spontaneous emission, Basic principle of Lasers, Population inversion, Laser Pumping,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgzynezPiyc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJ05XOJiaDY

https://www.slideshare.net/krishslide/lasers-39462492

Session 17

Different levels of the laser system, Ruby Laser, Applications of Lasers (Medicine, Metrology, Defenses, Nuclear energy, in communication, in the consumer electronics industry)

https://www.slideshare.net/JyotiSingh28/types-of-laser-75045103

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQ0lMSNuj_o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_8LNjaWAv9o

https://www.slideshare.net/dhrupal1067/laser-applications

Session 18

Practice: 5(2hours)

The wavelength of the LASER source by diffraction grating method

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lf2Kk9fP4s8

Session 19

Introduction to fiber optics, the structure of optical fibers, classification of optical fibers on the variation of refractive index

https://www.slideshare.net/subrata11/optical-fiber-55382806

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aylVgs2iDDw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UW24pQnnD3o

https://www.slideshare.net/juhikamnani/fiber-optics-70240266

Session 20

Classification of optical fibers on the variation of the mode of transmission/core diameter

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNa97A08wyU

Session 21

Numerical Aperture, Acceptance angle. Principle of optical fibers communication, optical communication (block diagram only)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxITpsvcj8s

https://www.slideshare.net/rahulohlan14/optical-fiber-communiction-system

Session 22

Practice: 6(2hours)

To find the numerical aperture of a given optic fiber and hence to find its acceptance angle

http://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=189&sim=343&cnt=1

Session 23

Session 25

Fiber materials-glass fibers, Plastic fibers, Light sources for fiber optics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJZYtFXnnwc

Session 26

V-number of an optical fiber, optical fiber cables design, optical fiber connection, fiber splices, fiber connectors.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SfUUrsYzoEI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZOg39v73c4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHJcfrEyvv4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnbv9QdnDEo

Session 27

Application of optical fibers- Cable TV, Networking, Power companies, Imaging,          Sensors, Medical (Dental surgery, Endoscopy, Surgery)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4i7maoqVcaY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NfP-_LY3yhU

https://www.slideshare.net/sathishsak/endoscopy-82816596

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    Dr.Subhraraj Panda is working as an Associate Professor of Physics in Centurion University of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha since 2008 and has 19 years of experience in teaching. He had his Ph.D. from Ravenshaw University, Cuttack in 2019 and got eight years of research experience. His research interests are fluid and molecular acoustic He […]