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This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the preparatory pharmacy with arts and science of preparing the different conventional dosage forms.
Upon completion of this course the student should be able to:
1. Know the history of profession of pharmacy
2. Understand the basics of different dosage forms, pharmaceutical incompatibilities and pharmaceutical calculations
3. Understand the professional way of handling the prescription
4. Preparation of various conventional dosage forms
1. Dispensing Pharmacy
i) Prescription – Reading and understanding of prescriptions, Latin terms commonly used (Detailed study is not necessary). Modern methods of prescribing, Adoption of merit system, Calculations involved in dispensing.
ii) Incompatibilities in prescription – Study of various types of
incompatibilities physical, chemical and therapeutic.
iii) Posology – Dosage and dosage of drug. Factors influencing dose,
Calculations of doses on the basis of age, sex and surface area. Veterinary doses.
2. Dispensed Medications:
(Note: A detailed study of the following dispensed medication is necessary:
Methods of preparation with theoretical and practical aspects), Use of appropriate containers and closures. Special labeling requirements and storage conditions should be high – lighted.
i) Powders– Type of powders, advantages and disadvantages of powders, Granules, Cachets and Tablet triturates. Preparation of different types of powders encountered in prescriptions, weighing methods, possible errors in weighing, minimum weighable amounts and weighing of a material below the minimum weighable of a material below the minimum weighable amount, geometric dilution and proper usage and care of dispensing balance.
ii) Liquid Oral Dosage forms:a. Monophasic– Theoretical aspects including commonly used vehicles essential adjuvant like stabilizers, colourants and flavours with examines.
Review on the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and practical methods.
1.Liquids for Internal Administration: Mixtures and concentrates syrups ,Elixirs
2.Liquids for external administration or used on Mucous Membranes:Gargles,Mouth washes, Throat – paints, Douches,Ear Drops,Nasal drops & Sprays, Liniments,Lotions
b. Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms
Suspensions (Elementary study) Suspension Containing diffusible
solids and liquids and their preparation. Study of the adjuvants used like thickening agents, wetting agents their necessity and quantity tobe incorporated./ suspensions of Precipitate forming liquid liketinctures their preparation and stability. Suspensions produced by chemical reaction. An introduction to flocculated/non-flocculated suspension system.
ii. Emulsion: Identification of emulsion systems, formulation of
emulsion, selection of emulsifying agents. Instabilities in emulsions.
Prevention of emulsions.
iii) Semi-Solid Dosage Forms:
a) Ointments – Types of Ointments, classification and selection of
dermatological vehicles.Preparation and stability of ointments by the
following process (i) Trituration, (ii) Fusion, (iii) Chemical reaction,(iv) Emulsification.
b) Pastes – Difference between ointments and pastes. Bases of pastes.
Preparation of pastes and their preservation.
c) Jellies – An introduction to the different types of jellies and their
d) An elementary study of poultice.
e) Suppositories and pessaries– Their relative merits and demerits, types of suppositories, suppository bases, classification, properties,
preparation and packing of suppositories. Use of suppositories for drug absorption.
iv) Dental and cosmetic Preparations: Introduction to Dentifrices Facial cosmetics, Deodorants, Antiperspirants, shampoos, Hair dressing and Hair removers.
v) Sterile Dosage forms:
a) Parenteral dosage forms: Definition, General requirements for
parenteral dosage forms, types of parenteral formulations, vehicles, adjuvants processing, personnel, facilities and quality control. Preparation of Intravenous fluid and admixtures, total parenteral nutrition, Dialysis fluids.
b) Sterility testing, Particulate matter monitoring, Faulty seals, packaging.
c) Ophthalmic products – Study of essential characteristics of different ophthalmic preparations. Formulation additives, special precaution in handling and storage of ophthalmic products.
Dispensing of products covering a wide range of preparation such as mixtures, emulsions, lotions, liniments, E.N.T. preparation, ointment, suppositories, powder. Incompatible prescription etc.
Books Recommended Latest Edition
1) Indian Pharmacopoeia.
2) British Pharmacopoeia.
3) National formularies (N.F.I., B.N.F.)
4) Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
5) Martindale’s Extra Pharmacopoeia.