Pharmaceutical chemistry-I (Diploma 1st year)

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KAMINI SETHY

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Course Name : Pharmachemistry-I

Credit(code) : DCPY1102(3-3-0)

Course Objectives

The objective is to make understand about 1)principles of limit tests.2)Familiar with different classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals 3)Identification of different anions, cations and different inorganic pharmaceuticals. 4) Knowledge about the sources of impurities and methods to determine the impurities in inorganic drugs and pharmaceuticals 5)understand the medicinal and pharmaceutical importance of inorganic compounds 6) To have been introduced to a variety of inorganic drug classes.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of the course the students shall be able to understand the application of inorganic pharmaceutical compounds.They will Explain the effects of impurities in pharmaceuticals.Describe the principles and methods of limit tests to control common impurities in pharmaceutical substances.Explain different pharmaceutical buffers, their preparations, uses in pharmaceutical system,measurement of tonicity.Explain the medicinal importance of pharmaceutical inorganic compounds.

Syllabus

MODULE 1

1. General discussion on the following inorganic compounds including important physical
and chemical properties, medicinal and Pharmaceutical uses, storage conditions and
chemical incompatibility.
A. Acids, bases and buffers Boric acid*, Hydrochloric acid, strong ammonium
hydroxide, Calcium hydroxide, Sodium hydroxide and official buffers.
B. Antioxidants,Hypophosphorous acid, Sulphur dioxide, Sodium bisulphite,
Sodium metabisulphite, Sodium thiosulphate, Nitrogen and Sodium Nitrite.
C. Gastrointestinal agents:

i)Acidifying agents dil.hydrochloric acid

ii)Antacids sodium bicarbonate,aluminium hydroxide gel,aluminium phosphate,calcium carbonate,magnesium carbonate,magnesium trisilicate,magnesium oxide,combinations of antacid preparations

iii)protectives and adsorbents bismuth subcarbonate and kaolin

saline cathartics-sodium potassium tartarate and magnesium sulphate

D. Topical Agents:

i)protectives-talc,zinc oxide,calamine,zinc stearate,titanium dioxide,silicone polymers

ii)antimicrobials and astringents-hydrogen peroxide,potassium permanganate,chlorinated line,iodine,iodine solutions,povidone iodine,boric acid,borax,silver nitrate,mild silver protein,mercury,yellow mercuric oxide,ammoniated mercury,

iii)sulphur and its compounds sublimed sulphur precipitated sulphur,selenium sulphide

iv)Astringents alum and zinc sulphate

E. Dental Products,Sodium Fluride, Stannous Flouride, Calcium carbonate,permanganate, Chlorinated lime, Iodine, Solutions of Iodine, Povidone-iodine,

Sodium metaphosphate, Dicalcium phosphate, Strontium chloride, Zinc chloride.
MODULE 2

F. Inhalants,Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide.
G. Respiratory stimulants,Ammonium Carbonate.
H. Expectorants and Emetics,Ammonium chloride , *Potassium iodide, Antimony
potassium tartrate.
I. Antidotes-Sodium nitrate.
2. Major Intra and Extracellular electrolytes:
A. Electrolytes used for replacement therapy-Sodium chloride and its
preparations, Potassium chloride and its preparations.
B. Physiological acid-base balance and electrolytes used-Sodium acetate, Potassium
acetate, Sodium bicarbonate injection, Sodium citrate, Potassium citrate, Sodium
lactate injection, Ammonium chloride and its injection.
C. Combination of oral electrolyte powders and solutions.
3. Inorganic Official compounds of Iron, Iodine, and, Calcium Ferrous Sulfate and
Calcium gluconate.
4. Radio pharmaceuticals and Contrast media-Radio activity-Alpha, Beta and
Gamma Radiations, Biological effects of radiations, Measurement of radio activity, G.
M. Counter Radio isotopes their uses, storage and precautions with special reference to
the official preparations. Radio opaque Contrast media, Barium sulfate.
5. Quality control of Drugs and Pharmaceuticals-Importance of quality control,
significant errors, methods used for quality control, sources of impurities in Pharmaceuticals,
Limit tests for Arsenic, chloride, sulphate, Iron and Heavy metals.
6. Identification tests for cations and anions as per Indian Pharmacopoei
a

References

  1. Inorganic pharmaceutical Chemistry by G.R Chatwal
  2. Text book of inorganic pharmaceutical chemistry-I by Mohammed Ali
  3. Concise inorganic pharmaceutical chemistry by Dr.K.R Mahadik,Dr.B.S Kuchekar

Session Plan

Session 1

Acids, bases Boric acidacid,base,boric acid-converted

Session 2

Hydrochloric acid, strong ammonium
hydroxide,hydrochloric acid and strong ammonium hydroxide-converted

Session 3

Sodium hydroxide,calcium chloridesodium hydroxide,calcium chloride-converted

Session 4

official buffersofficial buffer

Session 5

Antioxidants,Hypophosphorous acidantioxidants,hypophosphorous acid-converted

Session 6

 Sulphur dioxideSulphur dioxide-converted

Session 7

Sodium bisulphite,Sodium metabisulphite, Sodium metabisulphite-converted

Session 8

 Sodium thiosulphate,Sodium Thiosulfate-converted

Session 9

Nitrogen and Sodium Nitritenitrogen,sodium nitrite-converted

Session 10

Acidifying agents Dilute hydrochloric acid

Gastrointestinal agents,acidifying agents HCl-converted

Session 11

Aluminium hydroxide gel Aluminium phosphate

aluminium hydroxide gel,aluminium phosphate-converted

Session 12

sodium bicarbonate.-converted (1)

Antacids-Sodium bicarbonate

Session 13

Magnesium trisilicate

magnesium trisilicate-converted

Session 14

Calcium carbonate, Magnesium carbonate

calcium carbonate,magnesium carbonate-converted

Session 16

Magnesium oxide, Combinations of antacid preparations.

magnesiumoxide,combinations of antacids-converted

Session 17

Protectives and adsorbents-KaolinProtective and adsorbents-converted

Session 18

Protectives and Adsorbents-Bismuth subcarbonate 

Bismuth subcarbonate-converted

Session 19

Saline Cathartics-Sodium potassium tartrate and Magnesium sulphate.

magnesium sulphate,sodium potassium tartarate-converted

Session 20

Topical Agents:

Protectives-Talc,

topical agents talc-converted

Session 21

Session 22

Zinc Oxide, Calamine, 

zinc oxide,calamine-converted

Session 23

Titanium dioxide,
Silicone polymers.

titanium dioxide,silicone polymers-converted

Session 24

antimicrobials and astringentsantimicrrobial and astringent-converted

Session 25

hydrogen peroxide

hydrogen peroxide-converted

Session 26

Potassium

permanganate, Chlorinated lime, potassium permanganate,chlorinated lime-converted

Session 27

Iodine, Solutions of Iodine, iodine,iodine solutions-converted

Session 28

boric acid,Povidone-iodine,

BORIC ACID-converted

Session 29

mild silver protein,mercury

mild silver protein,mercury-converted

Session 30

Borax,Silver nitrate

borax,silver nitrate-converted

Session 31

 Yellow mercuric oxide, Ammoniated mercury .

yellow mercuric oxide,ammoniated mercury-converted

Session 32

Sulphur and its compounds,Sublimed sulphur

sulphur and its compounds-converted

Session 33

precipitated sulphur, selenium sulphide

precipitated sulphur,selenium sulphide-converted

Session 34

Astringents:-Alum and Zinc Sulphate.

ASTRINGENTS-ALUM,ZINC SULPHATE-converted

Session 35

Dental Products,Sodium Fluride,dental products,Sodium fluoride-converted

Session 36

Stannous Flouride, Calcium carbonate,stannous fluoride,calcium carbonate-converted

Session 37

Sodium metaphosphate, Dicalcium phosphate,sodium metaphosphate,dicalcium phosphate-converted

Session 38

Strontium chloride, Zinc chloride.strontium chloride,zinc chloride-converted

Session 39

Inhalants,OxygenINHALANTS OXYGEN-converted

Session 40

Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxidecarbon dioxide,nitrous oxide-converted

Session 41

Session 42

Expectorants and Emetics,Ammonium chloride , expectorant and emetics,ammonium chloride-converted

Session 43

Potassium iodide, Antimony
potassium tartrate.potassium iodide,antimony potassium tartarate-converted

Session 44

Electrolytes used for replacement therapy-Sodium chloride and its
preparations, electrolytes,sodium chloride-converted

Session 45

Potassium chloride and its preparationspotassium chloride and its preparation-converted

Session 46

physiological acid-base balance and electrolytes used-Sodium acetate, Potassium
acetate, Sodium bicarbonate injection,physiological acid base balance

Session 47

physiological acid-base balance and electrolytes used-Sodium acetate, Potassium
acetate, Sodium bicarbonate injection,

Session 48

Sodium citrate, Potassium citrate, Sodium
lactate injection,

Session 49

Ammonium chloride and its injection

Session 50

Combination of oral electrolyte powders and solutions

Session 51

Inorganic Official compounds of Iron, Iodine, and, Calcium Ferrous Sulfate and
Calcium gluconateofficial preparation of iron iodine and calcium-converted-converted

Session 52

Inorganic Official compounds of Iron, Iodine, and, Calcium Ferrous Sulfate and
Calcium gluconate

Session 53

Radio pharmaceuticals and Contrast media

Radiopharmaceuticals and contrast media

Session 54

biological effect of radiations

Session 55

Radio activity-Alpha, Beta and
Gamma Radiations

see session 53

Session 56

Measurement of radio activity, G.
M. Counter measurement of radioactivity,G.Mcounter

Session 57

Radio isotopes their uses, storage and precautions with special reference to
the official preparations.

Session 58

Radio opaque Contrast media, Barium sulfate.

see session 53

Session 59

Radio isotopes their uses, storage and precautions with special reference to
the official preparations.

Session 60

mportance of quality control,
significant errors

Session 61

methods used for quality control,

Session 62

sources of impurities in Pharmaceuticals

Session 63

sources of impurities in Pharmaceuticals

Sources of Impurities-

Session 64

Session 65

Limit tests for Arsenic

Session 66

Session 67

limit test for sulphatelimit test for sulphate

Session 68

limit test for ironlimit test for iron

Session 69

limit test for heavy metals

Session 70

limit test for heavy metals

Session 71

Identification tests for cations

Session 72

Identification tests for cations

Session 73

Identification tests for anions

Case Studies

Case Studies

Recent Comments

    Course Name : pharmachemistry-I

    DCPY1102(2)

    Course Objectives

    To make students understand how small impurities can be detected through limit tests.Qualitative identifications of cations and anions in pharmaceutical substances and analysis of purity of inorganic compounds

    Learning Outcomes

    The students will be well acquinted with the principle of limit tests, different classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals and their analysis and identification of different anions, cations and different inoganic pharmaceuticals.

    Course Syllabus

    1.Identification tests for inorganic compounds particularly drugs and pharmaceuticals.
    2. Limit test for chloride, sulfate, Arsenic, Iron and Heavy metals.
    3. Assay of inorganic Pharmaceuticals involving each of the following methods of
    compounds marked with (*) under theory.
    a. Acid-Base titrations (at least 3)
    b. Redox titrations (One each of Permanganometry and iodimetry)
    c. Precipitation titrations (at least 2)
    d. Complexometric titrations (Calcium and Magnesium)

    Session Plan

    Experiment 1

    Identification test for ferrous sulphateidentification test for ferrous sulphate

    Experiment 2

    Identification test for barium chloride

    Experiment 3

    Identification test for sodium identification of sodium carbonatecarbonate

    Experiment 4

    Identification test for ferrousidentification test for ferrous sulphate sulphate

    Experiment 5

    Identification test for magnesium hydroxide

    Experiment 6

    Identification test for calcium gluconate

    Experiment 7

    limit test for chloridelimit test for chloride

    Experiment 8

    limit test for sulphatelimit test for sulphate

    Experiment 9

    limit test for ironlimit test for iron

    Experiment 10

    limit test for arseniclimit test for arsenic

    Experiment 11

    limit test for heavy metalslimit test for heavy metals practical

    Experiment 12

    standardisation of 0.1N NaOHstandardisation of 0.1N NaOH

    Experiment 13

    Standardisation of 0.1N Potassium permanganatestandardisation of 0.1N KMnO4

    Experiment 14

    Standardisation of 0.1N sulphuric acidpreparation and standardisation of 0.1N H2SO4

    Experiment 15

    Assay of boric acidassay of boric acid

    Experiment 16

    Assay of ferrous sulphateassay of ferrous sulphate

    Experiment 17

    Assay of iodineassay of iodine

    Experiment 18

    Assay of sodium chloride

    Case Studies

    Case Studies

    Recent Comments

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