Physical Chemistry of Milk

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Dr. Soma Maji

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Core Courses

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Course Name : Physical Chemistry of Milk

Code(Credit) : CUTM1145(2-1-0)

Course Objectives

• Knowledge about the physical composition on milk of different species like density, viscosity, surface tension etc.
• Knowledge of the colligative property, electrical conductivity of milk
• Knowledge about the spectrophotometric method, NMR spectroscopy
• Knowledge about nuclear chemistry related to milk

Learning Outcomes

• Students will be able to explain the milk as colloidal system along with its properties such as density, specific gravity etc.
• Determine the electrical conductance redox potential of milk and pH etc.
• To know about the field of molecular spectroscopy, nuclear chemistry related to milk.

Course Syllabus

Module I: Colloid, emulsion density, specific gravity, surface tension and viscosity (7 hr)

• Constituents and gross composition of milk of different species and breeds of milch animals,
• Colloidal State: Distinction between true and colloidal solution, lyophilic & lyophobic solution, properties of colloidal system. Properties of colloidal systems
• Gels-their formation and properties. Milk as a colloidal system and its stability. Elementary idea about emulsion.
• Density: Density and specific gravity, pyknometer method, hydrometer lactometer. Density and specific gravity of milk, effect of various processing variables on the density and specific gravity of milk.
• Liquid State: Surface tension, surface energy interfacial tension. Surface tension of mixtures. Surface tension of milk and the factors affecting it.
• Viscosity- Definition of viscosity, Newtonian and Non-Newtonian liquids, Stokes Law, influence of temperature and concentration of solute on viscosity.
• Viscosity of normal milk, evaporated milk and condensed milk. Refractive index.

Practice: (4 hr)

• Determination of density and specific gravity of milk using pycnometer, hydrometer and lactometer.
• Determination of viscosity of milk using Ostwald viscometer.
• Determination of surface tension of milk using Stalagmometer. Interfacial tension between water-oil phases.
• Determination of refractive index of skim milk and whey

Module II: Colligative properties and electrical conductivity (4 hr)

• Colligative Properties of Dilute Solution: Vapour pressure, Raoults Law, Depression of freezing point, Elevation of boiling point. Freezing point and boiling point of milk. Osmosis and Osmotic pressure. Inter-relation of colligative properties
• Aqueous solution of Electrolytes: Electrolytes; non-electrolytes, ionic mobility, electrical conductance, Ostwald Dilution Law, Kohlrawsch‟s Law
• Electrical conductance of milk. Ionic Equilibria: Dissociation of water, ionic product of water

Practice: (2 hr)

• Determination of freezing point of milk.
• Determination of electrical conductance of milk.

Module III: Concept of pH, pOH, Oxidation reduction potential of milk (6 hr)Concept of pH, pOH, Oxidation reduction potential of milk (6 hr)

• Concept of pH and pOH and their scale. Acids and bases: Bronsted Lewis concepts of acids and bases, dissociation constants of acids and bases.
• Salt-their hydrolysis. Buffer solutions. Derivation of Henderson – Hasselbach equation and it application,
• Buffer capacity and buffer index, milk as a buffer system. Equilibrium of electrolytes. pH indicators.
• Oxidation- Reduction: Redox potential, Nernst equation,
• Electrochemical cells. Hydrogen, glass and calomel electrodes. Redox system of milk.

Practice:(5 hr)

• Preparation of a buffer solution. Determination pH of buffer solution and milk electrometrically.
• Determination of acidity of milk electrometrically.
• Titration of amino acid in the presence and absence of formaldehyde.
• Determination of redox potential of milk.
• Coagulation of milk using electrolytes.

Module IV: Nuclear chemistry and molecular spectroscopy (3 hr)

• Nuclear Chemistry: The nature of isotopes, radio isotopes. Half-life period of radio isotopes. Some of the important radio isotopes. Occurrence of radio nuclide in milk & milk products.
• Molecular Spectroscopy: The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, the laws of Lambert and Beer,
• Visible and ultra-violet Spectroscope. Mention of mass, NMR spectroscopy.

Practice: (1 hr)

• Determination of PKa1 PKa2 and PL. Verification of Lambert Beer Law.

Suggested Readings
• K. S. Sharma, Physical chemistry of milk, Agrimoon.com
• Ling, E. R. 2008. A Textbook of Dairy Chemistry. J. V. Publ. House, New Delhi.
• Mathur, M. P., Datta, R. D., and Dinakar, P. 2005. Textbook Of Dairy Chemistry. Indian Council Agricultural Research Publ., New Delhi.
• Webb, B. H., Johnson, A. H., and Alford, J. A. 1965. Fundamentals of dairy chemistry. AVI Publ. Co., New York.
• Walstra, P., Jenness, R. and Badings, H. T. 1984. Dairy Chemistry and Physics. 1st ed. Wiley-Inter science, New York.

Online resources:
https://www.agrimoon.com/wp-content/uploads/Physical-Chemistry-of-Milk.pdf

Session Plan

Session 1

Constituents and gross composition of milk of different species and breeds of milch animals

Session 2

Colloidal State: Distinction between true and colloidal solution, lyophilic & lyophobic solution, properties of colloidal system. Properties of colloidal systems

Video: Milk colloid and nano particle
Video: Types of colloids

Session 3

Gels-their formation and properties. Milk as a colloidal system and its stability. Elementary idea about emulsion.

Video: Emulsion
Video: Types of emulsion
Video: Preparation and properties of gel

Session 4

Density: Density and specific gravity, pyknometer method, hydrometer lactometer. Density and specific gravity of milk, effect of various processing variables on the density and specific gravity of milk.

Video: Concept of density

Video: Density of milk

Session 5

Liquid State: Surface tension, surface energy interfacial tension. Surface tension of mixtures. Surface tension of milk and the factors affecting it.

Video: Concept of surface tension

Session 6

Viscosity- Definition of viscosity, Newtonian and Non-Newtonian liquids, Stokes Law

Video: Viscosity concept

Session 7

Influence of temperature and concentration of solute on viscosity. Viscosity of normal milk, evaporated milk and condensed milk. Refractive index.

Session 8 (Practice)

Determination of density and specific gravity of milk using pycnometer, hydrometer and lactometer. Determination of viscosity of milk using Ostwald viscometer.

Video: Measurement of density of a liquid

Video: Determination of specific gravity of milk

Video: Determination of viscosity by Ostwald Viscometer

Video: Viscosity determination by animation

Session 9 (Practice)

Determination of surface tension of milk using Stalagmometer. Interfacial tension between water-oil phases.
Determination of refractive index of skim milk and whey

Video: Determination of surface tension by stalagmometer

Video: Concept of determination of refractive index
Video: Use of Abbe's Refractometer

Session 10

Colligative Properties of Dilute Solution: Vapour pressure, Raoults Law, Depression of freezing point, Elevation of boiling point.

Video: Concept of colligative properties

Session 11

Freezing point and boiling point of milk. Osmosis and Osmotic pressure. Inter-relation of colligative properties

Video: Concept of osmotic pressure

Session 12

Aqueous solution of Electrolytes: Electrolytes; non-electrolytes, ionic mobility, electrical conductance, Ostwald Dilution Law, Kohlrawsch‟s Law

Video: Concept of electrolytes and non electrolytes

Session 13

Electrical conductance of milk. Ionic Equilibria: Dissociation of water, ionic product of water

Video: Electrical conductance

Session 14 (Practice)

Determination of freezing point of milk.
Determination of electrical conductance of milk

Video: Determination of freezing point of milk

Session 15

Concept of pH and pOH and their scale. Acids and bases: Bronsted Lewis concepts of acids and bases, dissociation constants of acids and bases.

Video: Concept of pH and pOH

PDF: pH, pOH, Bronsted Lowry and Lewis concept of acid and bases

Session 17

Derivation of Henderson – Hasselbach equation and it application

Session 18

Buffer capacity and buffer index, milk as a buffer system. Equilibrium of electrolytes. pH indicators.

Video: Acid base equilibria and buffer solution

Session 19

Oxidation- Reduction: Redox potential, Nernst equation

Video: Oxidation Reduction potential

Session 20

Electrochemical cells. Hydrogen, glass and calomel electrodes. Redox system of milk.

Video: Concept of electrochemistry

Video: Standard hydrogen electrode

Video: Glass electrode

Session 21(Practice)

Preparation of a buffer solution. Determination pH of buffer solution and milk electrometrically.
Determination of acidity of milk electrometrically.
Titration of amino acid in the presence and absence of formaldehyde.

Session 22 (Practical)

Determination of redox potential of milk.
Coagulation of milk using electrolytes.

Session 23

Nuclear Chemistry: The nature of isotopes, radio isotopes. Half-life period of radio isotopes. Some of the important radio isotopes. Occurrence of radio nuclide in milk & milk products.

Video: Nuclear chemistry

Session 24

Molecular Spectroscopy: The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, the laws of Lambert and Beer

Video: Working of a spectrophotometer

Video: Beer- Lambert's law

Session 25

Visible and ultra-violet Spectroscope. Mention of mass, NMR spectroscopy

Video: UV and UV- Vis spectroscopy

Video: NMR Spectroscopy

Session 26 (Practice)

Determination of PKa1 PKa2 and PL. Verification of Lambert Beer Law

Case Studies

Case Studies

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    Dr. Soma Maji

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    Soma Maji is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, School of Agriculture and Bio-engineering, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha. She is B.Tech in Dairy Technology, M.Tech in Dairy Chemistry from WBUAFS, Nadia, West Bengal and Ph.D. in Dairy Chemistry from NDRI, Karnal. She has qualified ARSB NET […]