Physical Optics

Teacher

Mr. Gouri Kumar Sahu

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Physical Optics

Code(Credit) : CUTM1784(3-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • This course provides an understanding of wave nature of light to describe different optical phenomenon like interference, diffraction, polarisation, scattering. Photoluminescence, Stimulated emission, Radiometry

Learning Outcomes

On Completion of this course, the learner will be able to:

  • Describe and discuss waves, colour, frequency, photon energy, phase difference, optical coherence and coherent sources using monochromatic light sources of light.
  • Describe and discuss optical interference observed using wave front splitting and amplitude splitting interferometers, optical antireflection coatings.
  • Describe and discuss linear, circular and elliptical polarisation, Birefringence and use of polarised light.
  • Describe and discuss diffraction effects observed in a single slit and circular aperture and relate to Rayleigh criterion and optical resolution.
  • Describe Scattering, Florescence and phosphorescence, basics for Laser.
  • Describe the terms and units in radiometry and photometry.

Course Syllabus

Module 1
Nature of light, light as electromagnetic oscillation, wave equation; ideas of sinusoidal oscillations, simple harmonic oscillation; transverse nature of oscillation; concepts of frequency, wavelength, amplitude and phase. Relationship between amplitude and intensity, Sources of light; Electromagnetic Spectrum.
Module 2
Polarized light; linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light, Intensity of polarized light; Malus’Law; polarizers and analysers; Methods of producing polarized light; Brewster’s angle, Polarisation by piles of plates.
Practice-1: Verification of Malus’ Law using a polarizer – analyser combination.
Module 3
Birefringence; ordinary and extraordinary rays, Nicol Prism, uses of Nicol prism as Analyser and Polariser
Practice-2: Demonstration of birefringence using Calcite crystals
Module 4
Coherence; interference; constructive interference, destructive interference; Theory of double slit interference, fringes; fringe width. Double slits, Newton’s rings
Practice-3: Newton’s rings
Module 5
Diffraction; Fraunhofer diffraction at single slit; multiple slit; Diffraction Grating; diffraction by a circular aperture; Airy’s disc. Resolution of telescope; Raleigh’s criterion.
Practice-4: Gratings – determination of grating constant using Sodium vapour lamp;
Practice-5: Determination of wavelengths of light from Mercury vapour lamp
Practice-6: Circular Apertures – measurements of Airy’s disc for apertures of various sizes
Practice-7: Measurement of the resolving power of telescopes
Module 6
Scattering; Raleigh’s scattering; Tyndall effect. Fluorescence and Phosphorescence. Basics of Lasers –coherence; population inversion; spontaneous emission; Einstein’s theory of lasers
Practice-8: Demonstration of fluorescence and phosphorescence using crystals and paints
Module 7
Radiometry; solid angle; radiometric units; photopic and scotopic luminous efficiency and efficacy curves; photometric units. Inverse square law of photometry; Lambert’s law. Other units of light measurement; retinal illumination;

Text Book:

Subrahmanyan N, BrijLal, A text book of Optics, S. Chand Co Ltd, New Delhi, India, 2003

Reference Books:

  1. Pedrotti L. S, Pedrotti Sr. F. L, Optics and Vision, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1998.
  2. Keating NM. P, Geometric, Physical and Visual Optics, Butterworth- Heinemann, Massachusetts, USA, 2002.

PREREQUISITES: Higher secondary level Mathematics and Physics

Session Plan

Session 1

Session 3

Transverse nature of oscillation; concepts of frequency, wavelength, amplitude and phase.

You tube: https://youtu.be/yd-G6KYwzvA

Study Material: http://ncert.nic.in/ncerts/l/keph207.pdf

You tube: https://youtu.be/PD7mwFhNOtU

Animation: https://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/light/nature-of-light/index.html#1.7

Session 4

Relationship between amplitude and intensity.

You tube: https://youtu.be/dV7WqWIMl0o

Study material: http://muchomas.lassp.cornell.edu/p214/Notes/Interference/node6.html

Session 5

Sources of light; Electromagnetic Spectrum.

You tube: https://youtu.be/1bpmI3wdqW8

You tube: https://youtu.be/InsO7lmpB_g

Study Material: https://www.slideshare.net/thelawofscience/light-em-spectrum-12842021

Session 6

Polarized light; linearly polarized light; and circularly polarized light.

You tube: https://youtu.be/8YkfEft4p-w

Session 7

Intensity of polarized light; Malus’Law; polarizers and analysers.

You tube: https://youtu.be/LpZre_KIDM0

You tube: https://youtu.be/gP751qpm4n4

Session 8 (2 hrs)

Practice-1: Verification of Malus’ Law using a polarizer – analyser combination

You tube: https://youtu.be/OgImgIJgDA0

Session 9

Methods of producing polarized light; Polarisation by reflection, Brewster’s angle.

You tube: https://youtu.be/tomdmqeWaMM

Session 10

Polarisation by piles of plates

You tube: https://youtu.be/lLUjpI4qWCA

Session 11

Birefringence; ordinary and extraordinary rays.

You tube: https://youtu.be/iRwagObFrPM

Session 12

Nicol Prism, uses of Nicol prism as Analyser and Polariser.

You tube: https://youtu.be/5b6MDuU1J8U

Session 13 (2 hrs)

Practice-2: Demonstration of birefringence using Calcite crystals

You tube: https://youtu.be/iRwagObFrPM

Session 14

Coherence, interference, constructive interference, destructive interference.

You tube: https://youtu.be/CAe3lkYNKt8

Session 15

Theory of double slit interference, fringes; fringe width.

Animation: https://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/light/interference/index.html#4.5

You tube: https://youtu.be/MDX3qb_BMs4

Session 17 (2 hrs)

Practice-3: Determination of wavelength of light using Newton’s rings

Vlab: https://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=189&sim=335&cnt=1

Session 18

Diffraction, Types of diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction at single slit

Animation: https://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/light/diffraction/index.html#5.2

You tube; https://youtu.be/h9xx3pXFW-g

Session 19

Fraunhofer diffraction at multiple slit

You tube: https://youtu.be/x0hQ_HJ9_ig

Session 20

Diffraction Grating, grating spectrum, missing spectra

Animation: https://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/light/diffraction/index.html#5.3

Session 21 (2 hrs)

Practice-4: Gratings – determination of grating constant using Sodium vapour lamp.

Vlab: https://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=281&sim=334&cnt=1

Session 22 (2 hrs)

Practice-5: Determination of wavelengths of light from Mercury vapour lamp.

Vlab: https://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=281&sim=334&cnt=1

Session 23

Diffraction by a circular aperture, Airy’s disc

Animation: https://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/light/diffraction/index.html#5.5

You tube: https://youtu.be/rmg1XyOSAk0

Session 24 (2 hrs)

Practice-6: Circular Apertures – measurements of Airy’s disc for apertures of various sizes

Session 25

Raleigh’s criterion, Resolution of telescope.

You tube: https://youtu.be/fycm9N-k310

Session 26 (2 hrs)

Practice-7: Measurement of the resolving power of telescopes

You tube: https://youtu.be/CP4QgnZqqY8

Session 27

Scattering; Raleigh’s scattering

You tube: https://youtu.be/zxvx6ZIVmpk

Session 28

Tyndall effect

You tube: https://youtu.be/VsxxO1YgQVI

Session 29

Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

You tube: https://youtu.be/CcN8NnGGPhs

Session 30

Basics of Lasers –coherence; population inversion; spontaneous emission

You tube: https://youtu.be/2Oswmij538Q

Session 31

Einstein’s theory of lasers

You tube:https://youtu.be/1LmcUaWuYao

You tube: https://youtu.be/hfR16hKX9UQ

Session 32

Types of lasers: Ruby Laser, He-Ne Laser, 

You tube: https://youtu.be/T94BbyYyNpg

You tube: Ruby Laser

You tube: He-Ne Laser

You tube: Semiconductor Laser

Session 33

Radiometry; solid angle; radiometric units

You tube: https://youtu.be/SgWfA10fIEQ

Session 34

Photopic and scotopic luminous efficiency and efficacy curves

You tube: https://youtu.be/_Kt7SpSQDzQ

Session 35

Photometric units.  Inverse square law of photometry

You tube: https://youtu.be/hJvTxvaR5Lg

Session 36

Lambert’s law.  Other units of light measurement

You tube: https://youtu.be/V4_LVpfBxvE

Session 37

Retinal illumination

You tube: https://youtu.be/YcedXDN6a88

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