Physics of Solids and Semiconductors

Teacher

Dr. Nibedita Nayak

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Physics of Solids and Semiconductors

Code(Credit) : CUTM1413(3-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • To learn about crystal structure, electronic and dielectric properties of solids.
  • To learn about basic properties of metals, insulators and semiconductors.
  • To learn about semiconductor physics and discus working & applications of basic devices.

Learning Outcomes

After learning the course the students will able to

  • explain different types of crystal structures in terms of the crystal lattice and the basis of constituent atoms.
  • understand the origin of energy bands in solids.
  • explain the physical characteristics such as electronic structure and optical and transport properties, and current-voltage characteristics of semiconductors.
  • apply the knowledge of semiconductors to illustrate the functioning of basic electronic devices

Course Syllabus

Module-1

Structure of Solids

Bravais lattice, primitive vectors, primitive unit cell, conventional unit cell, Wigner-Seitz cell, Symmetry operations and classification of 2- and 3-dimensional Bravais lattices, point group and space group (information only). Common crystal structures- NaCl and CsCl structure, Close-packed structure, Zinc blende and Wurtzite structure, tetrahedral and octahedral interstitial sites, Spinel structure. Crystal diffraction by X-ray, Anomalous scattering. Atomic and geometric structure factors, systematic absences. Reciprocal lattice and Brillouin zone, Electron and neutron scattering by crystals (qualitative discussion)

Practice-1

V Lab: To study various crystals structures

Module-II

Band Theory of Solids

Bloch equation, Empty lattice band, Number of states in a band, Effective mass of an electron in a band, Concept of holes, Electronic band structures in solids, Nearly free electron model.

Practice-2

Determination of band gap of semiconductor by Four probe method

Module-III

Lattice Dynamics

Tight binding method - application to a simple cubic lattice, Band structures in copper, GaAs and silicon, Classical theory of lattice vibration under harmonic approximation, Dispersion relations of one dimension lattices, Mono atomic and diatomic cases, Characteristics of different modes, Long wavelength limit.

Practice-3

Determination of thermal and electrical conductivity of metals (copper and silver)

Module-IV

Specific Heat

Optical properties of ionic crystal in the infrared region, Inelastic scattering of neutron by phonon, Lattice heat capacity, Debye and Einstein models-omparison with electronic heat capacity, Anharmonic effects in crystals - thermal expansion.

Practice-4

Determination of specific heat of solids (copper, glass and lead)

Module-V

Dielectric Properties of Solids

Electronic, ionic and orientational polarisation, Static dielectric constant of gases and solids, Claussius Mossotti relation, Complex dielectric constant and dielectric losses, Relaxation time, Debye equations, Cases of distribution of relaxation time, Cole - cole distribution parameter, Dielectric modulus, Ferroelectricity, Displacive phase transition, Landau Theory of Phase transition.

Practice-5

Determination of dielectric constant of air, glass and polystyrenes

Module-VI

Imperfections in Solids

Frenkel and Schottky defects, Defects by non-stoichiometry, Electrical conductivity of ionic crystals, Classifications of dislocations, Role of dislocations in plastic deformation and crystal growth, Colour centers and photoconductivity, Luminescence and phosphors, Bragg - Williams theory, Order-disorder phenomena.

Module-VII

Semiconductors

Kronig Penny model (no derivation required). Band gap. Conductor, semiconductor (P and N type) and insulator. Conductivity of semiconductor, Mobility, Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors and their behaviour to external field, Types of semiconductors, Charge carriers, Intrinsic and extrinsic materials, Carrier concentration, Fermi Level, Electron and hole concentration equilibrium, Temperature dependence of carrier concentration, Compensation and charge neutrality. Conductivity and mobility, Effect of temperature, Doped semiconductors, Doping and high electric field.

Practice-6

Study of Hall effect (Determination of nature of charge carriers in a semiconductor)

Text Books:

  1. Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel, Wiley.
  2. Principles of Semiconductor devices, Bart Van Zeghbroeck.

Reference Books:

  1. Solid State Physics, by N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin (Cornell University)
  2. Introduction to Solid State Physics,S. O. Pillai, New Age International-

Session Plan

Session 1

Bravais lattice, primitive vectors, primitive unit cell, conventional unit cell, Wigner-Seitz cell Symmetry operations and classification of 2- and 3-dimensional Bravais lattices, point group and space group (information only)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjVTdZ_htu8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hQCrPmI4V58

https://www.slideshare.net/AkhilChowdhury/unit-icrystal-structure?

L1 PPT crystal structure

Session 2

Common crystal structures- NaCl and CsCl structure, Close-packed structure, Zinc blende and Wurtzite structure, Tetrahedral and octahedral interstitial sites, Spinel structure

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8g3CK5kke0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8fwtg8b3yD8

L2 PPT Common crystal structures

Session 4

Atomic and geometric structure factors, Systematic absences

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSjZMDF9hp4

Session 6

Practice-1 (2 hours)

To study various crystals structures by V-Lab and by using Biovia Material Studio.

http://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=282&sim=370&cnt=1

Session 7

Bloch equation, Empty lattice band, Number of states in a band

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4BitdiUDx6E

PDF energy band theory of solids

Session 8

Effective mass of an electron in a band, Concept of holes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpX9sd7gVuc

Session 9

Electronic band structures in solids

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyofIfippOU

Session 11

Practice-2 (2 hours)

Determination of band gap of semiconductor by Four Probe method /

Plotting the band diagram of different semiconductors using Biovia Material Studio

http://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=282&sim=1512&cnt=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L0NGS978DWA

Session 12

Tight binding method - application to a simple cubic lattice

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-iMIOb05ag

Session 13

Band structures in copper, GaAs and silicon

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qp07Xa-HZis

Session 14

Classical theory of lattice vibration under harmonic approximation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SEUrum2Fl-0

Session 15

Dispersion relations of one dimension lattices, Mono atomic and diatomic cases, Characteristics of different modes, Long wavelength limit.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2k-hnmDdp48

Session 17

Inelastic scattering of neutron by phonon, Lattice heat capacity

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CYNXugi9FrY

Session 18

Practice-3 (2 hours)

Determination of specific heat of solids

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gHFaL2990U

Session 19

Debye and Einstein's model-comparison with electronic heat capacity.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BM6AY7ttgO0

Session 20

Practice-4 (2 hours)

Determination of thermal and electrical conductivity of metals (copper and silver) / Plot the variation of thermal conductivity with temperature using Biovia Material Studio

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8krFro5gIRw

Session 21

Anharmonic effects in crystals - thermal expansion

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EA9P8rUholE

Session 22

Electronic, ionic and orientational polarisation, Static dielectric constant of gases and solids

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KTGdX951Z0

PDF Dielectrics

Session 23

Practice-5 (2 hours)

Determination of dielectric constant of air, glass and polystyrenes / Plot the variation of dielectric constant with temperature using Biovia Material Studio.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gNJd3LlMwBw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYx9tkqHUis

Session 24

Claussius Mossotti relation, Complex dielectric constant and dielectric losses, Relaxation time

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZchTd4fxo0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=htRSqV60ft0&t=6s

Session 25

Debye equations, Cases of distribution of relaxation time, Cole - Cole distribution parameter.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Eg-U-M2B7c

Session 26

Dielectric modulus, Ferroelectricity, Displacive phase transition.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mtIv25ltbH0

Session 27

Practice-6 (2 hours)

Study of Hall effect (Determination of nature of charge carriers in a semiconductor)

http://vlab.amrita.edu/?sub=1&brch=282&sim=879&cnt=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_AwjbHzwWLo

Application    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wpAA3qeOYiI

Session 28

Landau theory of phase transition.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J66n5Tb-2_0

Session 29

Frenkel and Schottky defects, Defects by non-stoichiometry, Electrical conductivity of ionic crystals classifications of dislocations.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJZovwIwXEY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ie-KfQionjY&t=40s

https://www.slideshare.net/NitikaSharma22/imperfections-in-solids?

PDF crystal imperfections

Session 30

Role of dislocations in plastic deformation and crystal growth

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpvTwYAUeA8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qgBMKS_fyo

Session 31

Colour centers and photoconductivity, Luminescence and phosphors.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LaCg5lbCjz8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=joQ2YbDJccg

Session 32

Bragg - Williams theory, Order-disorder phenomena.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hBzYQ_IZzwE

Session 33

Kronig Penny model (no derivation required). Band gap. Conductor, semiconductor (P and N type) and insulator. Conductivity of semiconductor, Mobility.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DB6Sep06Gwc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ANr1wgYLVRo

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s6rQI7t9XM4

PDF Semiconductors

Session 34

Direct and Indirect Band gap semiconductors and their behavior to external field.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RIeqSdM1USY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mmA42EEd9D0

Session 35

Types of semiconductors, Charge carriers, Intrinsic and extrinsic materials. Carrier concentration: Fermi Level, Electron and hole concentration equilibrium, Temperature dependence of carrier concentration

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ZNeDxfgYAE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCN-7wA8HUE

Session 36

Compensation and charge neutrality. Conductivity and mobility, Effect of temperature, Doped semiconductors, Doping and high electric field.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbpQT_TCu0k

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G-dLS9tOIGg

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      Dr. Nibedita Nayak is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics, School of Applied Sciences, Bhubaneswar Campus of Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha. She completed her Ph.D from Berhampur University in 2018. She is working on computational tools and new material development. She has more than six years of […]