Animal Physiology and Biochemistry


Sunita Satapathy


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Course Name :Animal Physiology and Biochemistry


Code(Credit) : CUTM1444 (3-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • To know the functioning of various organs and their inter relationship.
  • To  inform about various metabolic processes upto molecular level .
  • To facilitate students about applications in medicine, drugs and research

Learning Outcome

  • Students would be able to know and compare the different anatomical aspect of various organisms.
  • Students will acquire the knowledge of functioning of different body parts.
  • The students can apply the acquired knowledge for higher studies and research areas.

Course Syllabus

Module- I 

Physiology of Digestion and Respiration:

1.1- Absorptions of essential molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals).

1.2-Hormonal control and enzymatic roles in Gastrointestinal tract

1.3-Pulmonary ventilation, Respiratory volumes and capacities

1.4-Role of respiratory pigments and factors influencing respiration

1.5-Control and regulation of respiration

 Practice-1 -Study of T.S/L.S/V.S of  digestive organs (Stomach,Liver,Kidney,intestine etc.)

Assignmnt-1-Mechanism of respiration/molecular level absorption of  digested molecules

Module- II 

Physiology of Circulation and Excretion:

2.1-Coronary circulation ,conducting system(Origin and conduction of cardiac impulses )

2.2-Frank-Starling Law ,Cardiac cycle and cardiac output

2.3-Neural and chemical regulation of heart

2.4-Mechanism of Urine formation ,counter-current theory

2.5-Regulation of water and acid-base balance

Practice-2-Study of TLC/DLC from prepared blood smear/Determination of ABO Blood group

Assignment-2-Cardiac events-PPT/Counter current mechanism/Ultrafiltration

Module- III 

Physiology of Nervous , Reproduction and Endocrine system:

3.1-Control and coordinating system

3.2-Mechanism of neural action(Action potential and propagation in myelinated and non-myelinated nerve)

3.3-Sympathetic, parasympathetic and reflex action, Muscle contraction

3.4-Physiology of male and female reproduction

3.5-Mechanism and regulation of hormonal action

Practice-3-Estimation of haemoglobin using Sahli’s haemoglobinometer /Enumeration of  RBC & WBC. using haemocytometer

Assignment-3-Mechanism of Neural action/Mecanism of homonal action-PPT/Presentation

Module- IV 

Metabolic of Carbohydrate : Sequential Reactions and regulation of:

4.1-Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle and Gluconeogenesis

4.2-Phosphate pentose pathway, Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis

4.3-Compartmentalization, Shuttle systems and membrane transporters

4.4-Oxidative phosphorylation(Redox system and coupler reaction), Inhibitors and un-couplers of ETC

Assignment-4-Redox system and coupler reaction/Inhibitors and un-couplers of ETC

Module- V 

Biochemistry of Lipid :

5.1-β-oxidation and omega-oxidation of saturated fatty acids(with even and odd number of carbon atoms)

5.2-Biosynthesis Palmitic acid;


5.4-Metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids

Practice-4-Estimation of presence of  lipid/carbohydrate from supplied sample by using spectrophotometer



Biochemistry of Protein :

6.1-Transamination and Deamination

6.2- Mechanism of  Urea cycle

6.3- Protein-protein interactions

6.4-Fate of C-skeleton (Glucogenic and Ketogenic amino acids)

Practice-5-Estimation of total protein content by spectrophotometer/Lowrey's Method

Assignment-6-Fate of C-skeleton-PPT



7.1-Mechanism of enzyme action

7.2- Enzyme Kinetics

7.3- Inhibition and Regulation

Practice-6-To demonstrate the effect of temperature/pH/concentration on salivary enzyme activity


Online Source:, ,

Text Books:

  1. Guyton’s Physiology

Reference Books:

  1. Guyton, A.C. & Hall, J.E. (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology. XI Edition. Hercourt Asia PTE Ltd. W.B. Saunders Company.
  2. Tortora, G.J. & Grabowski, S. (2006). Principles of Anatomy & Physiology. XI Edition John Wiley & sons,
  3. Victor P. Eroschenko. (2008). diFiore’s Atlas of Histology with Functional correlations. XII Edition. Lippincott W. & Wilkins.
  4. Vander A, Sherman J. and Luciano D. (2014). Vander's Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function. XIII Edition, McGraw Hills


Course Syllabus

Session Plan

Session 1

1.1- Structural organization of gastrointestinal tract and associated glands


Session 2

1.2-Hormonal control of secretion of enzymes in Gastrointestinal tract

Hormonal -1

Session 3

1.3-Pulmonary ventilation, Respiratory volumes and capacities



Session 4

1.4- Role of respiratory pigments and factors influencing respiration



Session 5

1.5-Control and regulation of respiration





Session 6

Practice-1-Histological study of gastrointestinal/ Lungs (T.S/L.S/V.S)(2hrs)






Assignment-1-a)Mechanism of mineral absorption -PPT, b)Pulmonary ventilition

Session 7

2.1- Coronary circulation ,conducting system(Origin and conduction of cardiac impulses

Coronary circulation

conducting system-1

Session 8

2.2-Frank-Starling Law ,Cardiac cycle and cardiac output

Frank's law-1

Frank-Starling Law of the heart

cardiac cycle -cardiac output-1

cardiac output-2

Session 10

2.4- Mechanism of Urine formation ,counter-current theory




Session 11

Session 12

Practice-2 Enumeration of RBC & WBC using haemocytometer-DLC & TLC /Estimation of haemoglobin using Sahli’s haemoglobinometer


Haemoocytomter test-1

Haemoocytomter test-2

Sahli's Haemoglobinometer

Assignment-2- a)Neural control of  cardio-vascular system-PPT Presentation, b)Mechanism of urine formation-PPT

Session 13

Session 14

3.2- Mechanism of neural action(Neural propagation)

Neural propagation-1

Neural cocrdination-2


Session 15

3.3- Sympathetic, parasympathetic and reflex action, Muscle contraction



Session 16

3.4- Physiology of male and female reproduction



Session 17

Session 18

Assignment-3- a)- Neural Action potential-PPT presentation, b)Cardio-vascular action potential-PPT

Session 19

4.1- Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle and Gluconeogenesis

Carbohydrate Metabolism-Glycolysis-1

Carbohydrate Metabolism-Glycolysis-2



Session 21

Session 22

4.4- Oxidative phosphorylation(Redox system and coupler reaction), Inhibitors and un-couplers of ETC

Oxidative phosphorylation-1

Oxidative phosphorylation-2 

Oxidative phosphorylation-3

Oxidative phosphorylation-4

Oxidative phosphorylation-5

Session 23

Practice-4-Study of various tissue (mammal )/Estimation of carbohydrate by spectrophotometry method

Carbohydrate estimation-1

Carbohydrate estimation-2

Carbohydrate estimation -3



Assignment-4-a)Metabolism of Glycogen-PPT/Presentation, b)Starvation and regulation-PPT/Presentation.


Session 24

5.1- β-oxidation and omega-oxidation of saturated fatty acids(with even and odd number of carbon atoms





Session 26

5.3- Ketogenesis



Session 27

5.4- Metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids

Unsaturated fattyacid-1

Unsaturated fattyacid-2

Unsaturated fattyacid-3

Session 28


Assignment-5-Dry run of Beta Oxidation of Fatty Acid-PPT/Programming

Session 30

6.2-Urea Cycle

Urea cycle-1

Urea Cycle-2

Session 32

6.4- Fate of C-skeleton (Glucogenic and Ketogenic amino acids)

Glucogenic and Ketogenic amino acids

Fate of glucognic &ketogenic-1

Session 33

Practice-6-Estimate the protein content of supplied tissue by colorimeter method/Estimation of total protein content in the given sample by Lowry’s Method.

Protein stimation-1

Protein stimation-2


Session 34

7.1- Mechanism of enzyme action

Enzyme action-1

Enzyme action-2

Session 35

7.2-Enzyme Kinetics

Enzyme action

Enzyme kinetics

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

Sunita Satapathy

Assistant Professor

Experienced with teaching profession in the field of Biochemistry,Animal Physiology, Cell biology. Presently working as Assistant Professor in Department of Zoology,School of Applied Science,Centurion University of Technology & Management, Odisha, India. Pursuing P.hD in Vermitechnology (recycling Biodegradable Wastes ) in CUTM. Received M.Phil in Biotechnology on Activity of Enzyme and M.Sc. in BIOCHEMISTRY as Specialisation […]