Rotary-wing Flight Dynamics


Dr. Sangram Samal


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Course Name : Rotary-wing Flight Dynamics


Code(Credit) :CUTM1095(2-0-1)

Course Objectives

  • Student will study this course to get the knowledge about different types of helicopter,  and working principles of the helicopter flight
  • At end of this course student able to design a quad copter and able to fly

Learning Outcomes

  • Learn the rotor reaction and how to nullify this reaction
  • Ability to identify the types & classifications of components and control systems
  • Understand the stability of helicopter
  • Understand the principle of VTOL/STOL
  • Understand of hovercraft

Course Syllabus

Module I: Rotor configuration                    (3 hrs)

Introduction to rotary wing aircraft and Torque reaction, Different configurations to nullify the Torque reaction – Jet rotors and compound helicopters

Module II:  Methods of Control                  (3 hrs)

Problem in rotary wing with compare to fixed wing aircraft, Methods of Control, rotor blade pitch control, –Collective pitch and and Cyclic pitch  – Lead – Lag and flapping of rotor blade

 Module III:  Hovering and Vertical Flight  (6 hrs)

Hovering performance – Momentum Theory, Blade element theories – Figure of merit – Profile and  induced power estimation – Constant Chord and ideal twist rotors, Ground effect.

 Module IV: Forward Flight                         (5 hrs)

Forward flight , Induced, profile and parasite power requirements in forward flight – Performance curves with effects of altitude, Hub Loads, Sideward Flight, Rearward Flight, Turning Flight, Autorotation.

Module V:   Helicopter Trim and Stability             (4 hrs)

Equilibrium condition of helicopter, Trim analysis, Basics of helicopter stability.

 Module VI: VTOL and STOL                                    (5 hrs)

Various configurations – propeller, rotor, ducted fan and jet lift – Tilt wing and vectored thrust –Performance of VTOL and STOL aircraft in hover, transition and forward motion.

 Module VII:  Ground Effect Machines               (4 hrs)

Hovering Flight, lift augmentation and peripheral jet machines – Drag of hovercraft on land and water –Applications of hovercraft.

 Text Books:
  1. Gupta, L., Helicopter Engineering, Himalayan Books, 1996
  2. Gessow, A.and Myers, G. C., Aerodynamics of Helicopter, MacMillan & Co., 1987.
Reference Books:
  1. Johnson, W., Helicopter Theory, Princeton University Press, 1980.
  2. MacCromick, B. W., Aerodynamics of V/STOL Flight, Academic Press, 1987.

Source of reference; NPTL,

Project- Design and Build a small quad copter and fly it. Use Dassult system for designing

  1. Comparative configuration study of different types of quad copter.
  2. Comparative study of specification and performance details of quad copter
  3. Preparation of Comparative data sheets
  4. Comparative graphs preparation and selection of main parameters for the design purpose of the quad copter
  5. Preliminary main parameters Power plant selection , and control
  6. Build the quad copter
  7. Detailed stability check at ground.
  8. Flight testing
  9. Documentation

Session Plan

Session 1

Session 2

Different configurations to nullify the Torque reaction

Session 4

Difference of rotary wing with fixed wing aircraft.

fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft

Session 6

Collective pitch and and Cyclic pitch

Session 7

Lead and Lag of rotor blade

Session 8

flapping of rotor blade, Hovering Performance

Session 11

Momentum Theory

Session 12

Blade element theories, Figure of merit

Session 14

Session 17

Induced Drag, profile and parasite power requirements in forward flight

Session 18

Performance curves with effects of altitude

Session 19

Side-ward Flight, Rearward Flight, Turning Flight

Session 24

Basics of helicopter stability


Session 25

Configurations with propeller and rotor

Session 27

Tilt wing and vectored thrust

Session 28

Performance of VTOL and STOL aircraft

Session 30

lift augmentation and peripheral jet machine

Session 32

Applications of hovercraft

apllication of Hovercraft

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

Flight Dynamics, Aerodynamics, Experimental Aerodynamics