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Domain Track: Soil and Water Conservation through Watershed

Domain Track: Soil and Water Conservation through Watershed

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Mr. Subhankar Debnath

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Domain Track Title : Soil and Water Conservation through Watershed

Track Total Credits (T-P-P): (4-11-13) 28 Credits

Courses Division (list all divisions):

  • Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Recharge (CUSW2340) (1-2-0)
  • Integrated watershed management (CUSW2341) (2-1-0)
  • Sustainable Watershed (CUSW2342) (1-2-0)
  • R programming in watershed hydrology (CUSW2343) (0-2-1)
  • Modelling and Simulation of Watershed Processes (CUSW2344) (0-2-1)
  • Geo-spatial application in watershed management (CUSW2345) (0-2-1)
  • Industrial internship (CUSW2346) (0-0-10)

Domain Track Objectives:

  • Build skills in collecting, analyzing, and critically evaluating watershed data and documents from multiple sources
  • Apply hydrological modelling along with Geospatial application to manage the watershed
  • Improving livelihoods in rainfed areas through integrated watershed management
  • Pursue research and develop capabilities to handle multi-disciplinary field projects

Domain Track Learning Outcomes:

  • Analyzing and visualization of watershed data using R Programming
  • Application of different hydrological models to simulate watershed process
  • Application of rainwater harvesting in an integrated watershed management approach
  • Application of geospatial tools and environment to achieve project objectives

Domain Syllabus:

 

Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Recharge (1-2-0)

Theory:

Water Harvesting – concepts, methods; Soil’s requirement for water harvesting; Site and technique selection for WHS; Different types of water harvesting structures; In-situ rainwater harvesting – advantages and methods; Roof water harvesting components and layout; Farm pond – uses and types; Earthen dam – types and design criteria; Illustrate the importance of repair and maintenance of WHS; Artificial recharge techniques – direct and indirect methods; Case study for showing the economic evaluation of recharge schemes.

Practice

Design model for catchment: cultivated area ratio; Computation of trapezoidal bund per hector; Calculation of roof water harvesting and water harvesting potential; Design of farm pond; Design of earthen bund; Analysis of causes of failure of earthen bund; Determination of phreatic line in earthen dam – graphical and analytical method; Design of storage tank capacity for roof-top rainwater harvesting; Analyse the cost benefit of a WHS.

 

Integrated watershed management (2-1-0)

Theory

Introduction: watershed definitions; why a watershed approach; watershed response to land use; watershed analysis approach; history of watershed management; Current Issues in Water Management; Characteristics of Effective Watershed Management; Why "Integrated" Management?; Objectives of IWM; Recommend Planning and Management Approach; Improving livelihoods in rainfed areas through integrated watershed management: A development perspective; Watershed development for rainfed areas: Concept, principles, and approaches; Equity in watershed development: Imperatives for property rights, resource allocation, and institutions; Policies and institutions for increasing benefits of IWM programs; Application of tools in IWM for enhancing impacts; Impact of watershed projects in India: Application of various approaches and methods; Watershed management through a resilience lens; Review of Integrated Watershed Management Programme-2009-10 in India, Review of case studies on IWP in Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh.

Practice

Advances in Geospatial Technologies in IWM; GIS-Based monitoring systems for IWM; Identify catchment area and command area; Concepts of environmental flow assessment and methods with examples and case studies; Planning and Design of Shelterbelt for checking soil erosion in watershed; Calculation of effective precipitation for watershed; Field visits; Step by step processes in IWM planning and implementation strategy.

 

Sustainable Watershed (1-2-0)

Theory

History, development and national significance of watershed programs; principles and objectives of watershed; Different participatory watershed management approaches; characteristics of watershed management role of a Watershed Consultant; Introduction to the concept of sustainable watershed management; Principles of sustainable watershed management; Natural resources management and different case Study. Hydrologic modelling for sustainable watershed management and related case studies; Watershed health and sustainability; Water law and policy; Ecosystem services.

Practice

Need to be finalized.

 

R programming in watershed hydrology (0-2-0)
Practice
Introducing R: What It Is and How to Get It; Starting Out: Becoming Familiar with R; Writing Reusable Functions; Data: Descriptive Statistics and Tabulation; Data: Distribution; Simple Hypothesis Testing; Introduction to Graphical Analysis; Using R for Simulation; The “New” Statistics: Resampling and Bootstrapping; Writing Your Own Scripts: Beginning to Program; Making an R-Package; R-Packages for retrieving hydro-meteorological data; R-Packages for reading, manipulating, and cleaning the data; R-Packages for extracting driving data, spatial analysis, and cartography; R-Packages for hydrological statistics; R-Packages for static and dynamic hydrological data visualization; R-Packages for creating presentations and documents.

 

Modeling and Simulation of watershed processes (0-2-1)
Practice
Soil-Plant-Air-Water (SPAW) model: model overview, Data requirement, Simulation, Calibration and Sensitivity; Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Installation of ARCSWAT and other associated software, Project Setup, Watershed delineation, HRU analysis, Weather Definition, Edit SWAT inputs, SWAT Simulation, Calibration and Validation of SWAT Model; HEC-HMS model: Data Requirements, project setup, Hydrologic Elements, Editing a Basin Model, Creating a Meteorological Model, Defining the Control Specifications, Executing the HMS Model, Evaluation of model results; Storm Water Management Model (SWMM): Overview of the model, project setup, drawing objects, Setting Object Properties, Running a simulation, Viewing Results on the Map, Resizing the Network.

 

Geo-spatial application in watershed management (0-2-1)
Practice
Interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite imageries: resolution mosaics symbols, gully pattern and drainage analysis, vertical exaggeration and image distortion; Analysis of Aerial photographs and satellite images for drainage morphometry and watershed demarcation; Analysis of satellite and aerial photographs for surface water resources mapping; Analysis of satellite and aerial photographs for mapping Lithologically and structurally controlled aquifer systems; Mapping of geomorphic aquifers; Identification of recharge areas using remotely sensed data; Applications of Digital Elevation Models in Water Resources; Erosion, Erodibility & Sediment Yield Modeling; Groundwater exploration using remote sensing techniques and preparation of theme-based maps, pre-field interpretation and field checks; Analysis of thermal and microwave data for groundwater Targeting; Land use/land cover mapping up to level II using aerial photos and satellite images

Session Plan for the Entire Domain:

1.1. Water Harvesting – concepts, methods;

Youtube: Rainwater Harvesting (link 1);  Rainwater Harvesting (link 2)

1.2. Soil’s requirement for water harvesting;

Youtube: Introduction to Land-based Rainwater Harvesting

1.3. Design model for catchment: cultivated area ratio

Youtube: Yield from a catchment area/Discharge at the outlet of river

1.4. Site and technique selection for WHS;

Youtube: Traditional Water Harvesting: Khadin System

1.5. Different types of water harvesting structures;

Youtube: Types of Rainwater Harvesting System

1.6. Computation of trapezoidal bund per hector

1.7. In-situ rainwater harvesting – advantages and methods;

1.8. Roof water harvesting components and layout;

Youtube: Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting System

1.9. Calculation of roof water harvesting and water harvesting potential;

1.10. Farm pond – uses and types; Earthen dam – types and design criteria;

1.11. Design of farm pond, Design of earthen bund;

1.12. Analysis of causes of failure of earthen bund;

1.13. Determination of phreatic line in earthen dam – graphical and analytical method

Youtube: Earthern Dam-MGNREGA

1.14. Illustrate the importance of repair and maintenance of WHS;

1.15. Artificial recharge techniques – direct and indirect methods;

1.16. Design of storage tank capacity for roof-top rainwater harvesting

Youtube: Design of Rainwater Harvesting Water Tank

1.17. Case study for showing economic evaluation of recharge schemes.

1.18. Analyse the cost benefit of a WHS

2.1. Introduction: watershed definitions; why a watershed approach;

2.2. watershed response to land use; watershed analysis approach;

2.3. history of watershed management; Current Issues in Water Management;

2.4. Characteristics of Effective Watershed Management; Why "Integrated" Management?; Objectives of IWM;

2.5.  Recommend Planning and Management Approach;

2.6. Improving livelihoods in rainfed areas through integrated watershed management: A development perspective;

2.7. Watershed development for rainfed areas: Concept, principles, and approaches;

2.8. Equity in watershed development: Imperatives for property rights, resource allocation, and institutions;

2.9. Policies and institutions for increasing benefits of IWM programs;

2.10. Application of tools in IWM for enhancing impacts;

2.11. Impact of watershed projects in India: Application of various approaches and methods;

2.12. Watershed management through a resilience lens; Review of Integrated Watershed Management Programme-2009-10 in India,

2.13. Review of case studies on IWP in Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh.

2.14. Advances in Geospatial Technologies in IWM;

2.15. GIS-Based monitoring systems for IWM;

2.16. Identify catchment area and command area;

2.17. Concepts of environmental flow assessment and methods with examples and case studies;

2.18. Planning and Design of Shelter belt for checking soil erosion in watershed;

2.19. Calculation of effective precipitation for watershed;

2.20. Field visits; Step by step processes in IWM planning and implementation strategy.

3.1. History, development and national significance of watershed programmes;

3.2. principles and objectives of watershed;

3.3. Different participatory watershed management approaches;

3.4. characteristics of watershed management role of a Watershed Consultant;

3.5. Introduction to the concept of sustainable watershed management;

3.6. Principles of sustainable watershed management;

3.7. Natural resources management and different case Study.

3.8. Hydrologic modelling for sustainable watershed management and related case studies;

3.9. Watershed health and sustainability;

3.10. Water law and policy;

3.11. Ecosystem services.

4.0. Introducing R: What It Is and How to Get It;

4.1 Programming Language: basic definition and terms

4.2 Introduction to R programming

4.3 Basic syntax in R-programming

4.4 A first R session

4.5 Working with Data in R

4.6 Discussion regarding project work

4.7 Data type in R

4.8 Discussion regarding project work

4.9 Variable, Operators, decision making and loops

4.10 R-Functions and R-strings

4.11 R-vector, R-Lists

4.12 R-Matrix, R array

4.13 R-factors, R-Dataframes

4.14 Discussion with students regarding doubts

4.15 1st Internal class test

4.16 R – Packages, R – Csv Files and R – Excel File

4.17 R – Scatterplots, R – Line Graphs and R – Histograms

4.18 R – Boxplots, R – Bar Charts and R – Pie Charts

4.19 R – Linear Regression, R – Multiple Regression and R – Logistic Regression

4.20 R – Normal Distribution, R – Binomial Distribution

4.21 Creating Confidence Intervals, Performing t Tests

4.22 R – Poisson Regression, R – Analysis of Covariance and R – Time Series Analysis

4.23 R – Nonlinear Least Square and R – Chi Square Test

4.24 Nonparametric Tests in R

4.25 R- Simple Hypothesis Testing

 

4.26 R for Simulation

4.27 The “New” Statistics: Resampling and Bootstrapping

4.28 Making an R Package

4.29 R in hydrology: a review of recent developments

4.30 R-Packages for retrieving hydro-meteorological data_1

4.31 R-Packages for retrieving hydro-meteorological data_2

4.32 R-Packages for reading, manipulating, and cleaning the data

4.33 R-Packages for extracting driving data, spatial analysis, and cartography_1

4.34 R-Packages for extracting driving data, spatial analysis, and cartography_2

4.35 R-Packages for hydrological statistics

4.36 R-Packages for static and dynamic hydrological data visualization_1

4.37 R-Packages for static and dynamic hydrological data visualization_2

4.38 R-Packages for creating presentations and documents

4.39 Discussion with students regarding doubts

4.40 2nd Internal Exam

5.1. Soil-Plant-Air-Water (SPAW) model:  model overview, Data requirement, Simulation, Calibration and Sensitivity;

5.2. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Installation of ARCSWAT and other associated software,

5.3. Project Setup, Watershed delineation, HRU analysis,

5.4. Weather Definition, Edit SWAT inputs,

5.5. SWAT Simulation,

5.6. Calibration and Validation of SWAT Model;

5.7. HEC-HMS model: Data Requirements,

5.8. project setup, Hydrologic Elements,

5.9. Editing a Basin Model, Creating a Meteorological Model,

5.10. Defining the Control Specifications, Executing the HMS Model,

5.11. Evaluation of model results;

5.12. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM): Overview of the model,

5.13. project setup, drawing objects,

5.14. Setting Object Properties,

5.15. Running a simulation,

5.16. Viewing Results on the Map,

5.17. Resizing the Network.

6.1. Interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite imageries: resolution mosaics symbols,

6.2. gully pattern and drainage analysis, vertical exaggeration and image distortion;

6.3. Analysis of Aerial photographs and satellite images for drainage morphometry and watershed demarcation;

6.4. Analysis of satellite and aerial photographs for surface water resources mapping;

6.5. Analysis of satellite and aerial photographs for mapping Lithologically and structurally controlled aquifer systems;

6.6. Mapping of geomorphic aquifers;

6.7. Identification of recharge areas using remotely sensed data;

6.8. Applications of Digital Elevation Models in Water Resources;

6.9.  Erosion, Erodibility & Sediment Yield Modeling;

6.10. Ground water exploration using remote sensing techniques and preparation of theme based maps, pre-field interpretation and field checks;

6.11. Analysis of thermal and microwave data for ground water Targeting;

6.12. Land use/land cover mapping up to level II using aerial photos and satellite images;

List of Projects/ papers/jobs/products to be done in domain:

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