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Domain Track: Soil and Water Conservation through Watershed

Domain Track: Soil and Water Conservation through Watershed

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Mr. Subhankar Debnath

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Domain Track Title : Soil and Water Conservation through Watershed

Track Total Credits (T-P-P): (4-11-13) 28 Credits

Courses Division (list all divisions):

  • Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Recharge (CUSW2340) (1-2-0)
  • Integrated watershed management (CUSW2341) (2-1-0)
  • Sustainable Watershed (CUSW2342) (1-2-0)
  • R programming in watershed hydrology (CUSW2343) (0-2-1)
  • Modelling and Simulation of Watershed Processes (CUSW2344) (0-2-1)
  • Geo-spatial application in watershed management (CUSW2345) (0-2-1)
  • Industrial internship (CUSW2346) (0-0-10)

Domain Track Objectives:

  • Build skills in collecting, analyzing, and critically evaluating watershed data and documents from multiple sources
  • Apply hydrological modelling along with Geospatial application to manage the watershed
  • Improving livelihoods in rainfed areas through integrated watershed management
  • Pursue research and develop capabilities to handle multi-disciplinary field projects

Domain Track Learning Outcomes:

  • Analyzing and visualization of watershed data using R Programming
  • Application of different hydrological models to simulate watershed process
  • Application of rainwater harvesting in an integrated watershed management approach
  • Application of geospatial tools and environment to achieve project objectives

Domain Syllabus:

 

Rainwater Harvesting and Artificial Recharge (1-2-0)

Theory

Module I (15 hrs)
Fundamentals of rainwater harvesting: Water Harvesting – concepts, methods; Soil’s requirement for water harvesting; Site and technique selection for WHS; Different types of water harvesting structures; In-situ rainwater harvesting – advantages and methods; Roof water harvesting components and layout
Module II (12 hrs)
Basic design aspect of artificial recharge and farm pond structures: Farm pond – uses and types; Earthen dam – types and design criteria; Illustrate the importance of repair and maintenance of WHS; Artificial recharge techniques – direct and indirect methods

Module III (3 hrs)
Economic analysis of farm pond and reservoir: Case study for showing the economic evaluation of recharge schemes.

 

Practice

Study of hydrological cycle and water balance; Studying runoff models suitable for water harvesting; Methods of data acquisition; Computation of trapezoidal bund requirement per hector; General design considerations for earth dam; Computing design or dependable catchment yield; Design of farm pond; Design of earthen embankment; Calculation of roof water harvesting and water harvesting potential; Design of storage tank capacity for roof-top rainwater harvesting; Analysis of causes of failure of earthen bund; Analysis of causes of failure of earthen embankment; Slices method of stability analysis; Foundation stability against shear; Calculation of roof water harvesting and water harvesting potential; Design of storage tank capacity for roof-top rainwater harvesting; Determination of phreatic line in earthen dam – graphical and analytical method; Case study for showing economic evaluation of recharge schemes; Operation and maintenance of water harvesting structures; Analyse the cost benefit of a water harvesting structures.

 

Integrated watershed management (2-1-0)

Theory

MODULE – I  (8 hrs)

Watershed basics; Components and coding of watershed; Familiarization with the watershed problems; Representation of watershed system; Morphometric analysis of watershed; Drainage and discharge characteristics of watershed; Characteristics of watershed; Factors affecting watershed processes.

MODULE – II  ( 8 hrs)

Delineation of watershed; Prioritization of watershed; Watershed response to land use; Storm water management; Concept of flood; Concept of drought; Management of flood and drought; Watershed development strategy for rain-fed areas.

MODULE – III  ( 4 hrs)

Policy implementation for IWM; Institutional activities on integrated watershed management; Tools and techniques for improved IWM practice; Review of Integrated Watershed Management Programme in India.

 

Practice

Visualization of different geo-spatial tools used in IWM; Introduction to various open-source geo-spatial data repositories; Representation of earth features in GIS; Delineation of catchment area using Arc-GIS; Basic morphometric analysis of watershed; Preparation of Thiessen polygon to compute areal precipitation; Preparation of spatial maps of different watershed components; Environmental flow assessment; Identification of potential sites for conservation structure implementation; Field visit for working knowledge on different adaptive options on watershed management; Understanding of past successful IWM programs.

 

Sustainable Watershed (1-2-0)

Theory

MODULE – I  (4 hours)

History, development and national importance of watershed programs; Principles and objectives of watershed; Introduction to the concept of sustainable watershed management; Principles of sustainable watershed management; Natural resources management and different case Study.

MODULE – II (18 hours)

Hydrologic modeling for sustainable watershed management and related case studies; Watershed health and sustainability; Water law and policy; Ecosystem services.

MODULE – III (8 hours)

Floods - causes of occurrence, flood classification - probable maximum flood, standard project flood, design flood; Flood control-history of flood control, structural and non-structural measures of flood control, storage and detention reservoirs, levees, channel improvement, Flood routing.

 

Practice

Hydrologic modelling for sustainable watershed management using GIS approach; Hydrologic modelling for sustainable watershed management using GIS approach; Identification of recharge areas using remotely sensed data; Erosion, erodibility & sediment yield modelling; Reservoir sedimentation estimation using GIS and remote sensing; Reservoir sedimentation estimation using GIS and remote sensing; Introduction to HEC-HMS model; Installation of HEC-HMS model; Simulation through HEC-HMS model; Practice class HEC-HMS model; Flood estimation-methods of estimation; flood frequency methods – log normal, Gumbel’s extreme value; Flood estimation-methods of estimation; flood frequency methods – log-Pearson type-III distribution; depth-area-duration analysis; Flood routing related basic equations; Hydrologic storage routing method: Modified Pul’s method; Hydrologic storage routing method: Goodrich method; Hydrologic channel routing: Muskingum equation; Introduction to 1D river modelling; Simulation of flood model; Overview of 2D modelling and difference between 1D and 2D flood modelling; Revision and doubt clearance

 

R programming in watershed hydrology (0-2-0)
Practice
Introducing R: What It Is and How to Get It; Starting Out: Becoming Familiar with R; Writing Reusable Functions; Data: Descriptive Statistics and Tabulation; Data: Distribution; Simple Hypothesis Testing; Introduction to Graphical Analysis; Using R for Simulation; The “New” Statistics: Resampling and Bootstrapping; Writing Your Own Scripts: Beginning to Program; Making an R-Package; R-Packages for retrieving hydro-meteorological data; R-Packages for reading, manipulating, and cleaning the data; R-Packages for extracting driving data, spatial analysis, and cartography; R-Packages for hydrological statistics; R-Packages for static and dynamic hydrological data visualization; R-Packages for creating presentations and documents.

 

Modeling and Simulation of watershed processes (0-2-1)
Practice
Brief introduction on watershed processes, importance of modeling and simulation of watershed processes; Introduction and installation of SWAT model and overview of data requirements; Watershed delineation, HRU analysis; Simulation through SWAT model (calibration); Simulation through SWAT model (validation); Introduction and installation of SPAW model and overview of data requirements; Simulation through SPAW model (calibration); Practice class for simulation with SWAT and SPAW; HEC-RAS model: Introduction and overview of model, installation; Simulation through HEC-RAS model; HBV model: Introduction and overview of model, installation; Simulation through HBV model; Practice class for simulation with HEC-RAS and HBV; Introduction to TOP model and installation; Simulation through TOP model; DSS-ET model: Introduction and overview; Installation, Simulation with DSS-ET model; Practice class for simulation with TOP and DSS-ET models; Case studies with different hydrological models; Revision and doubt clearance.

 

Geo-spatial application in watershed management (0-2-1)
Practice
Interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite imageries: resolution mosaics; Analysis of Aerial photographs and satellite images for drainage morphometry and watershed demarcation; Analysis of satellite and aerial photographs for surface water resources mapping; Representation of earth features in GIS; Analysis of satellite and aerial photographs for mapping Lithologically and structurally controlled aquifer systems; Mapping of geomorphic aquifers; Identification of recharge areas using remotely sensed data; Applications of Digital Elevation Models in Water Resources; Erosion, Erodibility and Sediment Yield Modeling; River flow path analysis, Land use/land cover mapping using aerial photos and satellite images.

Session Plan for the Entire Domain:

1.1. Water Harvesting – concepts, methods;

1.2. Soil’s requirement for water harvesting;

1.3. Design model for catchment: cultivated area ratio

1.4. Site and technique selection for WHS;

1.5. Different types of water harvesting structures;

1.6. Computation of trapezoidal bund per hector

1.7. In-situ rainwater harvesting – advantages and methods;

1.8. Roof water harvesting components and layout;

1.9. Calculation of roof water harvesting and water harvesting potential;

1.10. Farm pond – uses and types; Earthen dam – types and design criteria;

1.11. Design of farm pond, Design of earthen bund;

1.12. Analysis of causes of failure of earthen bund;

1.13. Determination of phreatic line in earthen dam – graphical and analytical method

1.14. Illustrate the importance of repair and maintenance of WHS;

1.15. Artificial recharge techniques – direct and indirect methods;

1.16. Design of storage tank capacity for roof-top rainwater harvesting

1.17. Case study for showing economic evaluation of recharge schemes.

1.18. Analyse the cost benefit of a WHS

2.1. Introduction: watershed definitions; why a watershed approach;

2.2. watershed response to land use; watershed analysis approach;

2.3. history of watershed management; Current Issues in Water Management;

2.4. Characteristics of Effective Watershed Management; Why "Integrated" Management?; Objectives of IWM;

2.5.  Recommend Planning and Management Approach;

2.6. Improving livelihoods in rainfed areas through integrated watershed management: A development perspective;

2.7. Watershed development for rainfed areas: Concept, principles, and approaches;

2.8. Equity in watershed development: Imperatives for property rights, resource allocation, and institutions;

2.9. Policies and institutions for increasing benefits of IWM programs;

2.10. Application of tools in IWM for enhancing impacts;

2.11. Impact of watershed projects in India: Application of various approaches and methods;

2.12. Watershed management through a resilience lens; Review of Integrated Watershed Management Programme-2009-10 in India,

2.13. Review of case studies on IWP in Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh.

2.14. Advances in Geospatial Technologies in IWM;

2.15. GIS-Based monitoring systems for IWM;

2.16. Identify catchment area and command area;

2.17. Concepts of environmental flow assessment and methods with examples and case studies;

2.18. Planning and Design of Shelter belt for checking soil erosion in watershed;

2.19. Calculation of effective precipitation for watershed;

2.20. Field visits; Step by step processes in IWM planning and implementation strategy.

3.1. History, development and national significance of watershed programmes;

3.2. principles and objectives of watershed;

3.3. Different participatory watershed management approaches;

3.4. Estimation of soil loss (USLE)

3.5. Characteristics of watershed management role of a Watershed Consultant;

3.6. Introduction to the concept of sustainable watershed management;

3.7. Principles of sustainable watershed management;

3.8. Measurement of soil loss (multi slot divisor)

3.9. Natural resources management and different case Study.

3.10. Study of grassed waterways

3.11. Study of contour bund and compartmental bunding

3.12. Study of terraces

3.13. Study of CCT and staggered trenches

3.14. Study of gully plug, nala bund, check dams and K.T.weirs

3.15. Hydrologic modelling for sustainable watershed management and related case studies

3.16. Hydrologic modelling for sustainable watershed management and related case studies-GIS approach

3.17. Determination of pond capacity

3.18. Identification of recharge areas using remotely sensed data

3.19. Watershed health and sustainability;

3.20. Erosion, erodibility & sediment yield modelling

3.21. Water law and policy;

3.22. Ecosystem services.

3.23. Reservoir sedimentation estimation using GIS and RS

3.24. Visit to watershed

4.0. Introducing R: What It Is and How to Get It;

4.1 Programming Language: basic definition and terms

4.2 Introduction to R programming

4.3 Basic syntax in R-programming

4.4 A first R session

4.5 Working with Data in R

4.6 Discussion regarding project work

4.7 Data type in R

4.8 Discussion regarding project work

4.9 Variable, Operators, decision making and loops

4.10 R-Functions and R-strings

4.11 R-vector, R-Lists

4.12 R-Matrix, R array

4.13 R-factors, R-Dataframes

4.14 Discussion with students regarding doubts

4.15 1st Internal class test

4.16 R – Packages, R – Csv Files and R – Excel File

4.17 R – Scatterplots, R – Line Graphs and R – Histograms

4.18 R – Boxplots, R – Bar Charts and R – Pie Charts

4.19 R – Linear Regression, R – Multiple Regression and R – Logistic Regression

4.20 R – Normal Distribution, R – Binomial Distribution

4.21 Creating Confidence Intervals, Performing t Tests

4.22 R – Poisson Regression, R – Analysis of Covariance and R – Time Series Analysis

4.23 R – Nonlinear Least Square and R – Chi Square Test

4.24 Nonparametric Tests in R

4.25 R- Simple Hypothesis Testing

 

4.26 R for Simulation

4.27 The “New” Statistics: Resampling and Bootstrapping

4.28 Making an R Package

4.29 R in hydrology: a review of recent developments

4.30 R-Packages for retrieving hydro-meteorological data_1

4.31 R-Packages for retrieving hydro-meteorological data_2

4.32 R-Packages for reading, manipulating, and cleaning the data

4.33 R-Packages for extracting driving data, spatial analysis, and cartography_1

4.34 R-Packages for extracting driving data, spatial analysis, and cartography_2

4.35 R-Packages for hydrological statistics

4.36 R-Packages for static and dynamic hydrological data visualization_1

4.37 R-Packages for static and dynamic hydrological data visualization_2

4.38 R-Packages for creating presentations and documents

4.39 Discussion with students regarding doubts

4.40 2nd Internal Exam

5.1. Soil-Plant-Air-Water (SPAW) model:  model overview, Data requirement, Simulation, Calibration and Sensitivity;

5.2. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Installation of ARCSWAT and other associated software,

5.3. Project Setup, Watershed delineation, HRU analysis,

5.4. Weather Definition, Edit SWAT inputs,

5.5. SWAT Simulation,

5.6. Calibration and Validation of SWAT Model;

5.7. HEC-HMS model: Data Requirements,

5.8. project setup, Hydrologic Elements,

5.9. Editing a Basin Model, Creating a Meteorological Model,

5.10. Defining the Control Specifications, Executing the HMS Model,

5.11. Evaluation of model results;

5.12. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM): Overview of the model,

5.13. project setup, drawing objects,

5.14. Setting Object Properties,

5.15. Running a simulation,

5.16. Viewing Results on the Map,

5.17. Resizing the Network.

6.1. Interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite imageries: resolution mosaics symbols,

6.2. Gully pattern and drainage analysis, vertical exaggeration and image distortion;

6.3. Analysis of Aerial photographs and satellite images for drainage morphometry and watershed demarcation;

6.4. Analysis of satellite and aerial photographs for surface water resources mapping;

6.5. Analysis of satellite and aerial photographs for mapping Lithologically and structurally controlled aquifer systems;

6.6. Mapping of geomorphic aquifers;

6.7. Identification of recharge areas using remotely sensed data;

6.8. Applications of Digital Elevation Models in Water Resources;

6.9.  Erosion, Erodibility & Sediment Yield Modeling;

6.10. Ground water exploration using remote sensing techniques and preparation of theme based maps, pre-field interpretation and field checks;

6.11. Analysis of thermal and microwave data for ground water Targeting;

6.12. Land use/land cover mapping up to level II using aerial photos and satellite images;

 

Reference Books

  1. Pourghasemi, H. R., & Gokceoglu, C. (Eds.). (2019). Spatial modeling in GIS and R for earth and environmental sciences. Elsevier.
  2. Kennedy, M. D. (2013). Introducing geographic information systems with ARCGIS: a workbook approach to learning GIS. John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Gonenc, I. E., Wolflin, J. P., & Russo, R. C. (Eds.). (2014). Sustainable Watershed Management. CRC Press.
  4. Wani, S. P., Rockstrom, J., & Sahrawat, K. L. (2011). Integrated watershed management in rainfed agriculture. CRC Press.
  5. Beheim, E., Rajwar, G. S., Haigh, M., & Krecek, J. (Eds.). (2012). Integrated watershed management: perspectives and problems. Springer Science & Business Media.
  6. Mailund, T. (2017). Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R: Statistical Programming for Data Science, Analysis and Finance. Apress.

List of Projects/ papers/jobs/products to be done in domain:

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