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Course Name : Pharmaceutical Analysis- I

Code(Credit) : BPHT1102 (4-0-0)

Course Objectives

  • Understand the principles of volumetric and electrochemical analysis
  • Carryout various volumetric and electrochemical titration
  • Develop analytical skills
  • Know about purity analysis

Learning Outcomes

  • Adequate knowledge and information regarding basic principles of Pharmaceutical analysis
  • Adequate knowledge of practical aspects and analysis of various pharmaceutical and medicinal agents
  • Adequate knowledge of practical aspects of delivering a quality assured product as per pharmacopoeia, WHO and ISO standards
  • Able to purify, identify and analyze medicinal agents.
  • Able to learn and apply the quality assurance principles including legal and ethical aspects involving drugs.
  • Continuously upgrade professional information and be conversant with latest advances in Pharmacy field to serve the community better.

Course Syllabus


(a) Pharmaceutical analysis- Definition and scope i) Different techniques of analysis ii) Methods of expressing concentration iii) Primary and secondary standards. iv) Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate

(b)Errors: Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures (c)Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents,limit tests.


Acid base titration: Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves

Non aqueous titration: Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl


Precipitation titrations: Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride.

Complexometric titration: Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate.

Gravimetry: Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate.

Diazotisation titration- Basic Principles,methods and application of diazotisation titration.


Redox titrations

(a) Concepts of oxidation and reduction

(b) Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications) Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate


Electrochemical methods of analysis

Conductometry- Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.

Potentiometry - Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration and applications.

Polarography - Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications.


  1. A.I. Vogel, Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic analysis
  2. P. Gundu Rao, Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  3. Bentley and Driver's Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  4. John H. Kennedy, Analytical chemistry principles 

Session Plan

Session 1

Overview of pharmaceutical analysis

pdf- 1

link for overview of pharma analysis

Session 2

Various Method of expressing concentration

pdf- 2

link for method of expressing concentration

Session 3

Primary and secondary standard

pdf- 3

link for standard solution

Session 4

Standardization of oxalic acid and sodium hydroxide

pdf- 4

link for standardisation of sodium hydroxide and oxalic acid

Session 5

Standardization of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate

pdf- 5

link for Standardization of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate

Session 6

Standardization of sulphuric acid and potassium permanganate

pdf- 6

link for Standardization of sulphuric acid and potassium permanganate

Session 7

Preparation and Standardization of ceric ammonium sulphate

pdf- 7

link for Preparation and Standardization of ceric ammonium sulphate

Session 8

Error in pharmaceutical analysis

pdf- 8

link for pharmaceutical error

Session 9

Accuracy, precission, significant figures

pdf- 9

link for precission and accuracy

Session 10

Methods of minimizing error

pdf- 10

link for minimizing error

Session 11

Concept of acid and base

pdf- 11

Session 12

Concept of pH, pOH and buffer

pdf- 12

Session 13

Acid- base titration- indicators and its type

pdf- 13

Session 14

Classification of acid base titration and theory involved in titration

pdf- 14

Session 15

Theories of acid base indicator

pdf- 15

Session 16

Neutralization curve of strong acid vs strong base

pdf- 16

Session 17

Neutralization curve of weak acid vs strong base

pdf- 17

Session 18

Non aqueous titration- concept and types of solvent

pdf- 18

Session 19

Estimation of sodium benzoate

pdf- 19

Session 20

Estimation of sodium benzoate

pdf- 20

Session 21

Estimation of ephedrine HCL

pdf- 21

Session 22

Precipitation titration- concept, principle

pdf- 22

Session 23

Mohrs and volhards method

pdf- 23

Session 24

Modified Volhard and fajans method

pdf- 24

Session 25

Estimation of sodium chloride

pdf- 25

Session 26

Complexometric titration- principle, classification

pdf- 26

Session 27

Metal ion indicator, masking and demasking agents

pdf- 27

Session 28

Estimation of magnesium sulphate and calcium gluconate

pdf- 28

Session 29

Gravimetric analysis- concept, principle

PDF- 29

Session 30

Steps in gravimetric analysis

PDF- 30

Session 31

Purity analysis concept, co- precipitation

PDF- 31

Session 32

Post precipitation, estimation of barium sulphate

PDF- 32

Session 33

Redox titration- concept and principle

PDF- 33

Session 34

Iodimetry and iodimetry

PDF- 34

Session 35


PDF- 35

Session 36


PDF- 36

Session 37


PDF- 37

Session 38

Titration with potassium iodate

PDF- 38

Session 39

Electro chemical method concept, types and electro chemical cell

PDF- 39

Session 40

Conductometry- introduction, conductometry cell

PDF- 40

Session 41

Conductometry titration, application

PDF- 41

Session 42

Potentiometric concept, principle

PDF- 42

Session 43

Construction and working of reference electrode

PDF- 43

Session 44

Construction and working of indicator electrode


Session 45

Method to determine end point of potentiometry titration, application

PDF- 45

Session 46

Polarography- principle, ilkovic equation

PDF- 46

Session 47

Construction and working of DME and RPE

PDF- 47

Session 48

Process of polarographic titration and application

PDF- 48

Case Studies

Case Studies

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