# Aerodynamic

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# Code(Credit) : CUTM1096(3-1-0)

## Course Objectives

To make the student understand the 2-D flow ideal and real flow.

To make the student understand the concept of viscous flow.

To make the student understand the deferent types of drag.

To make the student understand the compressible effect over wing.

## Learning Outcomes

Using Dassault system

Compare the CFD data with experimental and analyzing

Ability to estimate aircraft drag (low speed & high speed)

Understanding of sensitivity of aircraft drag to various aircraft parameters

## Course Syllabus

Module I:  Two dimensional Flow  (4hrs)

Pressure and velocity distributions on bodies with and without circulation in ideal and real fluid flows. Kutta Joukowski’s theorem. D’Alembert Paradox, Magnus effects.

Practice-Pressure distribution over cylinder with and without circulation using Dassault systemes

Simulate the pressure around fuselage using Dassault systemes

Module II: Viscous Flow ( 5 hrs)

Reynolds number, laminar flow, transition flow and turbulent flow,  Boundary layer and boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness, momentum thickness, Energy thickness,

Practice-  Flow over a flat plate at different Reynolds no using Dassault systemes.

Module III:  Flow separation and control techniques  (4 hrs)

Boundary Layer growth and point of separation, Techniques to control the point of separation, Flow over different contours.

Practice-  Flow over a flat plate at different angles of incidence using Dassault systemes.

Module IV: Aerodynamics Drag (4 hrs)

Aerodynamics parameter, Wing tip vortex, down wash, different types of drag method to minimizing those. Aerodynamic efficiency and dependency,

Practice-  Compare the Lift, drag and aerodynamic efficiency at different angle of attack of an airfoil using Dassault systemes and wind tunnel.

Practice- Design and simulate nacelles, intakes and nozzles using Dassault system

Module V: Shock Wave ( 4 hrs)

Normal shock and equations, Oblique shocks and corresponding equations, θ- β- M relation, Hodograph and pressure turning angle, shock polar, flow past wedges. strong, weak and detached shocks .

Practice- Design and simulate the flow over nacelles, intakes and nozzles using Dassault system

Module VI:  Expansion Waves, Rayleigh And Fanno Flow  (5hrs)

Rayleigh and Fanno Flow. Flow past convex corners, Expansion hodograph, Reflection and interaction of shocks and expansion waves, Methods of Characteristics, Two dimensional supersonic nozzle contours.

Practice-  Find out pressure and velocity distribution in high speed jet using Dassault systemes also using experimental and compare the results.

Module VII: Airfoil in High Speed Flows     (4hrs)

Critical Mach numbers, Lift and drag divergence, Characteristics of swept wings, Effects of thickness, camber and aspect ratio of wings, Transonic area rule, Tip effects.

Practice- Design the different swept back wing and check the effect on transonic speed using Dassault systemes

1. ##### Rathakrishnan, E., "Gas Dynamics", Prentice Hall of India, 2012. Anderson, Jr., J.D. Introduction to Flight, McGraw-Hill International Edition, 1999

Source of reference; NSQF – Level 6

## Session 1

Pressure and velocity distributions over a cylinder without circulation in ideal flow and real flow.

## Session 2

Kutta Joukowski’s theorem

Kutta

## Session 4

Practice- Pressure distribution over cylinder with and without circulation using Dassault systemes

## Session 6

Reynolds number and effect on aerodynamics parameters

## Session 7

Boundary layer and boundary layer thickness

Boundary Layer

## Session 8

displacement thickness

## Session 9

momentum thickness and Energy thickness

## Session 10

Practice-  Flow over a flat plate at different Reynolds no usingDassault systemes.

## Session 11

Boundary Layer growth and point of separation

Boundary Layer separation

## Session 12

Techniques to control the point of separation

## Session 13

Flow over different contours

## Session 14

Practice-  Flow over a flat plate at different angles of incidence using Dassault systemes.

## Session 15

Aerodynamics parameters and uses

## Session 16

Wing tip vortex, down wash

## Session 17

different types of drag method to minimizing those

Drag

Drag1

## Session 18

Compare the Lift, drag and aerodynamic efficiency at different angle of attack of an airfoil using Dassault systemes and wind tunnel.

Oblique shocks

θ- β- M relation

## Session 22

Hodograph and pressure turning angle

## Session 23

shock polar, flow past wedges.

## Session 24

strong, weak and detached shocks .

## Session 25

Practice- Design and simulate the flow over nacelles, intakes and nozzles using Dassault system

## Session 26

Rayleigh and Fanno Flow.

## Session 27

Flow past convex corners, Expansion hodograph

## Session 28

Reflection and interaction of shocks and expansion waves

## Session 29

Methods of Characteristics, Two dimensional supersonic nozzle contours.

## Session 30

Practice-  Find out pressure and velocity distribution in high speed jet using Dassault systemes also using experimental and compare the results.

## Session 32

Lift and drag divergence

Lift and drag divergence

## Session 34

Effects of thickness, camber

## Session 35

Tip effects and Aspect Ratio on critical mach no

## Session 36

Practice- Design the different swept back wing and check the effect on transonic speed using Dassault systemes

## Case Studies

### Dr. Sangram Samal

##### Professor
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Flight Dynamics, Aerodynamics, Experimental Aerodynamics