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• Evaluate the importance of various plant tissues in plant development
• Evaluate the stages of plant growth and development
• To understand the conduction path of water and mineral nutrients
Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
• Learn about different types of cells, tissue and tissue system
• Learn about internal anatomical structures of root, shoot and leaf of representative monocot and dicot angiosperm plants
• Learn about different types cells in plant growth and metabolism
• Pursue higher studies and thereby get employment opportunity
Introduction and scope of Plant Anatomy:Applications in systematics, forensics and pharmacognosy.
Structure and Development of Plant Body: Internal organization of plant body: The three tissue systems, types of cells and tissues.
1. Demonstration of double staining technique and Preparation of double staining slides
2. Distribution of mechanical tissues in Sunflower , Nyctanthes Stem
Development of plant body: Polarity, Cytodifferentiation and organogenesis during embryogenic development.
Tissues: Classification of tissues; Simple and complex tissues (no phylogeny), Pits and plasmodesmata; Wall ingrowths and transfer cells, adcrustation and incrustation; ergastic substances
3. To study secretory tissue system through fresh material or permanent slides Orange rind /Lemon leaf
Apical meristems: Evolution of concept of organization of shoot apex (Apical cell theory, Histogen theory, Tunica Corpus theory, continuing meristematic residue, cyto histological zonation); Types of vascular bundles; Structure of dicot and monocot stem.
4. Study of anatomical details of monocot stem through permanent slides/temporary stain mounts
5. Study of anatomical details of dicot stem through permanent slides/temporary stain mounts
Origin, development, arrangement, diversity in size and shape of leaves; Structure of dicot and monocot leaf, Kranz anatomy.Organization of root apex (Apical cell theory, Histogen theory, Korper-Kappe theory); Quiescent centre; Rootcap; Structure of dicot and monocot root; Endodermis, exodermis and origin of lateral root.
6. Study of anatomical details of monocot root through permanent slides/temporary stain mounts
7. Study of anatomical details primary structure of dicot root through permanent slides/temporary stain mounts
8. Study of anatomical details of isobilateral leaf
9. Study of anatomical details of dorsiventral leaves
Vascular Cambium and Wood: Structure, function and seasonal activity of cambium; Secondary growth in root and stem.
10. Anatomical study of wood in T.S., T.L.S. and R.L.S
Axially and radially oriented elements; Types of rays and axial parenchyma; Cyclic aspects and reaction wood; Sapwood and heartwood; Ring and diffuse porous wood; Early and late wood, tyloses; Dendrochronology; Development and composition of periderm, rhytidome and lenticels.
Adaptive and Protective Systems: Epidermal tissue system, cuticle, epicuticular waxes, trichomes (uni-and multicellular, glandular and non-glandular, two examples of each), stomata (classification); Hydathodes, cavities, lithocysts, laticifers; Anatomical adaptations of xerophytes and hydrophytes.
11. Study of differen types of stomata
12. Study of anatomical details of hydrophytic leaves
1. Pandey S N, Ajanta Chadha (2009)Plant Anatomy and Embryology , Vikas Publishing House
2. Singh, Pande, Jain,Anatomy of Angiosperm.(2016) Rastogi Publications
3. B. P. Pandey, Plant Anatomy (Revised Edition) S Chand & amp; Co Ltd.
1. Evert, R.F. (2006) Esau’s Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function and Development, .John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
2. Eames .A.J. and Macdaniels,L.H,1947, An Introduction to Plant Anatomy, McGrow- Hill,N.Y and London
Introduction and scope of Plant Anatomy: Applications in systematics, forensics and pharmacognosy.
Tissues: Classification of tissues; Simple and complex tissues (no phylogeny)
Pits and plasmodesmata: Wall ingrowths and transfer cells
Secretory structures: Adcrustation and incrustation, Ergastic substances
Organization of root apex: (Theories: Histogen theory, Korper-Kappe theory)
Structure of dicot root: Endodermis, exodermis; Origin of lateral root
Practice 9 (2 hours)
Study of anatomical details of dorsiventral leaves
Secondary growth in stem
Adaptive and Protective Systems: Epidermal tissue system, cuticle, epicuticular waxes, trichomes (uni-and multicellular, glandular and non-glandular, two examples of each)
Dr. Sagarika Parida has completed her research fellowship from NRRI, ICAR, Cuttack and has been awarded the Ph. D. degree in Botany from Utkal University. She has worked as Post Doctoral Fellow in IMMT, CSIR, Bhubaneswar. The focus of her research work has been on microbiology, integrated pest and disease management and herbal drug standardization […]