Applied Radiation Physics & Radiation Protection

Teacher

Sashisaroj T Tiwari

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Subject Code : BSRT2301 

Subject type : 3+1+0

Credit: 4

Course Objectives

  • Introduction to the use of ionizing radiation for the management of cancer.
  • To get exposure to different types of clinical radiation generators.
  • Use of radioactive sources for the management of malignant and non-malignant diseases.
  • To know different areas of cancer management using advanced types of equipment.

Course Outcomes

CO1: To understand the concept of tube voltage,filtration and target materials

CO2:  To explain different beam defining devices and radiation units

CO3: To Analyse the measurement of radiation and dosimetry procedure.

CO4: Evaluating treatment dose calculation, daily treatment type of electron and neutron therapy.

CO5: To Apply the cardinal principles of radiation protection and effectively use different rdiation monitoring devices

Unit-1

Effects of variation of tube voltage current, filtration, III waveform and target material on X-ray production lows of radioactivity and decay schemes of different alpha, Beta, gamma ray. Megatron and position emitters as used in medicine especially in radiotherapy.Artificial radionuclide generators employed in medicine in general and radiotherapy sources in particulars.

Unit-2

Physical requirements of beam defining devices e.g. cones, diaphragm, collimators etc. Units of radiation measurements specification of quality and half- valve thickness (HIV) and its measurements, filters and filtration. Measurement of radiation and dosimeteric procedures. Radiation detectors and their principles of working. Definition of Bragg-peak , percentage depth dose, peak scatter factor, tissue air-ratio, tissue maximum ratio, scatter air ratio, isodose curves and radiation penumbra of different beams. Wedge filters, wedge angle, hinge angle. Compensator beams flattering filters, scattering foils. Physical properties of phantom materials, bolus and substitutes. Factor used for treatment dose calculations, Daily treatment time and monitor units calculation method physical aspects of electron and neutron therapy.

 

 

RADIATION PROTECTION

Unit-3

Definition of radiation hazards maximum permissible dose and annual limit of intake (ALI) permissible dose levels on and around sealed source housing and installation principles of radiation protection and MPD of different ICRP rules, stochastic and nonstochastic effects. Importance of ‘ALARA’ physical principles of design and planning of installation safe work practice in teletherapy and brachytherapy. Shielding materials Radiation survey and personnel monitoring devices film badge, TLD badges pocket dosimeters.

 

 

Suggested Reading

  1. Advance Medical Physics by Rehani , publisher jaypee brothers
  2. Radiation Physics by Faiz M Khan, publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

 

 

Session Plan

Session 1

Effects of variation of tube voltage current, filtration, III waveform

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/02841866609133133

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQ2IbjOmir8

 

Session 2

Target material on X-ray production

https://www.slideshare.net/HanumanDoke/x-ray-production-and-properties?qid=c1db2edb-4ae8-4b1f-8c03-bca31de7414c&v=&b=&from_search=2

Animation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsaTx5-KLT8

Session 3

Laws of radioactivity

https://www.slideshare.net/parchart/radioactivity-37937551?qid=a0e5871e-c4d4-4ad5-bd8b-527ef808736c&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQnnPPrcmsQ

Session 4

Different schemes of alpha, Beta and gamma ray decay

https://www.slideshare.net/parchart/radioactivity-37937551?qid=a0e5871e-c4d4-4ad5-bd8b-527ef808736c&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f6NOTo3YAts

Session 5

Megnetron and position emitters as used in medicine especially in radiotherapy

https://www.slideshare.net/ajainduavinash/the-main-methods-of-radiotherapy?qid=0d9bd77f-3473-49ae-b241-88134e23e873&v=&b=&from_search=18

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEoQTBemyDY

Session 6

Explain the Artificial radionuclides

https://www.slideshare.net/AhmadHassan72/production-of-radio-nuclides-production-of-shortlived-radionuclide?qid=465e6ac8-7756-47e3-b767-3366527fd9db&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dY10s71rv80

Session 7

Artificial radionuclide generators employed in medicine in general.

https://www.slideshare.net/VictorEkpo2/everything-radionuclides-nuclear-medicine?qid=be23152d-2293-4cb4-a658-9ff078bb43da&v=&b=&from_search=21

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLNazQthGkc

Session 8

Discussing about radiotherapy sources in particulars.

https://www.slideshare.net/InochiAshFull/introduction-of-radiotherapy?qid=80b1da78-b964-4e14-9ea7-c2649bfe634f&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=320ALJDfx0E

Session 9

Explaining Physical requirements of beam defining devices i.e cones, diaphram and collimator

https://www.slideshare.net/Prashantthakur13/electron-beam-machining?qid=251c127a-e2a0-4860-b334-e837f01b859c&v=&b=&from_search=54

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGnFJ9XgDcY

Session 10

Units of radiation measurement

https://www.slideshare.net/FabinRomeroVelazquez/radiation-measurement-units?qid=b6b11bf2-59af-4d6e-a3d2-e8a0d7f69c59&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MpQzhZ0RRDM

Session 11

Measurements of specification of quality and half-wave thickness

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oHJNSenIjF4

Session 12

Discussed about the filters and filtration

https://www.slideshare.net/SaruGosain/x-ray-filters?qid=707e67dc-4d76-46ba-98d1-72a8a309a9d6&v=&b=&from_search=2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rahsQVXzp84

Session 13

Measurement of radiation and dosimetric procedures

https://www.slideshare.net/vinayDesai12/basic-dosimetric-principle-and-dosimeters?qid=abe3aabb-7b52-4225-90f4-ebd93d5f00ee&v=&b=&from_search=5

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PfWQkXvoCtI

Session 14

Demonstrate the principles and working of radiation detectors.

https://www.slideshare.net/GirishpalvaiKumar/radiation-detectors?qid=5ba7c76d-702b-45d6-b721-fb987695cb6f&v=&b=&from_search=3

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A8EEH5Fyc8k

Session 15

Explain the Bragg peak, percentage depth dose, peak scatter factor,tissue air – ratio, tissue maximum ratio and scatter air ratio.

https://www.slideshare.net/cpaswathi/particle-beam-protonneutron-heavy-ion-therapy?qid=5a76668f-61bb-42b4-adac-720c6b3102c4&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxwIlnZLO8U

Session 16

Draw the isodose curves

https://www.slideshare.net/abishadh/isodose-curves?qid=f7346d08-ca38-498b-9b9e-8f4255e9696b&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mmpZ_mWfLrY

Session 17

Demonstrate the radiation penumbra of different beams

https://www.slideshare.net/DilshadKP/intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-imrt?qid=914c06ae-73d4-49d7-95ee-51a27a711ce7&v=&b=&from_search=5

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGMkJMQhsa8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h8Or-UZgNUw

Session 18

Demonstrate the Wedge filters and wedge angle and hinge angle

https://www.slideshare.net/SaruGosain/x-ray-filters?qid=f9d43304-8931-4b06-962d-c505ea370c7d&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wr5JRP4yXaA

Session 19

Explaining the working of Compensator beams flattering filters and scattering foils  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxKAMqv7QXM

Session 20

Explain the physical properties of phantom materials

https://www.slideshare.net/drvikrampatil/approach-to-chest-xray-and-interpretation?qid=d44d638c-74e0-4d49-b904-e3af488417e1&v=&b=&from_search=31

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k7KLsPtrZvU

Session 21

Explain bolus and substitutes, the factors used for treatment dose calculations

https://www.slideshare.net/KiranRamakrishna/treatment-plannings-i-kiran?qid=bdb4d5c1-7fb6-45c5-add7-b951893ac691&v=&b=&from_search=44

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTaSfpBJgCE

Session 22

Demonstrate the daily treatment time and monitor units calculation method aspects of electron and neutron therapy.

https://www.slideshare.net/ajjitchandran/electron-beam-therapy?qid=3875d453-5699-45a7-8991-eb74d2e2fe1d&v=&b=&from_search=4

https://www.slideshare.net/BHOLURAMSWAMI/difference-bw-electron-neutron-and?qid=3875d453-5699-45a7-8991-eb74d2e2fe1d&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9G6rNUsvPK8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQrbfBiQpfk

Session 23

Demonstrate the radiation hazards.

https://www.slideshare.net/AlternateSystems/xray-safety-8830694?qid=9441eda8-dc74-46e6-9162-ad0d61f72b00&v=&b=&from_search=2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PfWQkXvoCtI&t=262s

Session 24

Explaining the annual limit of intake (ALI) permissible dose levels on and around sealed source housing  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fjy_hVpWgWs

Session 25

Explain the installation principles of radiation protection.

https://www.slideshare.net/AabidRahiman/aerb-guidelines-for-x-ray-and-ct-installation?qid=bda82dff-2088-4265-a090-18f412d703c3&v=&b=&from_search=6

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJsZ2_JRKD0

Session 26

Explain MPD(maximum permissible dose), Different ICRP rules

https://www.slideshare.net/santam/radiation-protection?qid=33922523-5154-48fa-9571-6508b0f1aeaa&v=&b=&from_search=20

Session 27

Explain Stochastic and nonstochatic effects

https://www.slideshare.net/hmdali/x-ray-films?qid=9620bbf8-b4d9-48fd-a9af-a6fc91a2a78a&v=&b=&from_search=14

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7qpRmk7GaU

Session 28

Demonstrate the  Importance of ALRA principle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_9VkpPKVgI

Session 29

Explain physical principles of design and planning of installation safe work practice in teletherapy

https://www.slideshare.net/drarnabradiotherapy/isotopic-teletherapy-machines?qid=09313d62-bbcc-4e99-b8e0-cbb04f4dad3a&v=&b=&from_search=50

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_7kDIl-YzI

Session 30

Explain physical principles of design and planning of installation safe work practice in brachytherapy

https://www.slideshare.net/YaminiBaviskar1/interstitial-bt-principles?qid=57a8e5e1-14c9-4787-a1d2-456eadfcc765&v=&b=&from_search=3

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfuFgyULt7w

Session 31

Explaining the shielding materials and radiation survey.

https://www.slideshare.net/PratikshaBM/radiation-shielding-materials-market-growth-and-forecast-2027?qid=fc241969-3492-4e71-a02a-2c6202794865&v=&b=&from_search=1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gDDYGTdf3N4

Session 32

Explain the film badges

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGymsO6Assc

Session 33

Explain TLD badges and comparison

https://www.slideshare.net/hmdali/x-ray-films?qid=dd7d9ed6-abd5-4899-939f-2ba5a9d1f73a&v=&b=&from_search=3

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gT4zdfhpfrE

Our Main Teachers

Sashisaroj T Tiwari

Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology,  SoPAHS
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