Applied Radiation Physics and Radiation Protection


Dr K Venkata Prasad


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Course Name :  Applied Radiation Physics & Radiation Protection

Code(Credit) : APRIT 301 (3-0-1)

Course Objectives

  • To understand the importance of the X – rays in medical field
  • To study the applications of radiotherapy sources.
  • To develop an understanding of radiation measurements.
  • To understand how to follow radiation protection rules
  • To study the physical properties and applications of x- ray machine techniques

Learning Outcomes

  • Know what it takes to have a career in physics in x-ray techniques
  • Understand the need to increase Physics in radiology
  • Know the radiation protection rules and measurements
  • Know the application of physical parts in x-ray machines

Course Syllabus



Module -1

Effects of variation of tube voltage current, filtration, III waveform and target material on X-ray production, laws of radioactivity and decay schemes of different alpha, Beta, gamma ray.

Module -2

Megatron and position emitters as used in medicine especially in radiotherapy. Artificial radionuclide generators employed in medicine in general and radiotherapy sources in particulars.

Module -3

Physical requirements of beam defining devices e.g. cones, diaphragm, collimators etc. Units of radiation measurements specification of quality and half- valve thickness (HIV) and its measurements, filters and filtration.

Module -4

Measurement of radiation and dosimeteric procedures. Radiation detectors and their principles of working. Definition of Bragg-peak , percentage depth dose, peak scatter factor, tissue air-ratio, tissue maximum ratio, scatter air ratio, isodose curves and radiation penumbra of different beams.

Module -5

Wedge filters, wedge angle, hinge angle. Compensator beams flattering filters, scattering foils. Physical properties of phantom materials, bolus and substitutes. Factor used for treatment dose calculations, Daily treatment time and monitor units calculation method physical aspects of electron and neutron therapy.


Module -6

Definition of radiation hazards maximum permissible dose and annual limit of intake (ALI) permissible dose levels on and around sealed source housing and installation principles of radiation protection and MPD of different ICRP rules, stochastic and nonstochastic effects.

Module -7

Importance of ‘ALARA’ physical principles of design and planning of installation safe work practice in teletherapy and brachytherapy. Shielding materials Radiation survey and personnel monitoring devices film badge, TLD badges pocket dosimeters.

Text books:

  1. Advance Medical Physics by Rehani , publisher jaypee brothers
  2. Radiation Physics by Faiz M Khan, publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins


  1. An Introduction to The Principles of Medical Imaging Revised Edition by Chris Guy &  Dominic fytche, Published by Imperial College Press
  2. Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging and Blood Flow Measurements Published in 2006 by CRC London Press New York

Session Plan

Session 1

Effects of variation of tube voltage current, filtration, III waveform

Session 11

Measurements of specification of quality and half-wave thickness

Session 15

Explain the Bragg peak, percentage depth dose, peak scatter factor,tissue air – ratio, tissue maximum ratio and scatter air ratio.

Session 19

Explaining the working of Compensator beams flattering filters and scattering foils

Session 24

Explaining the annual limit of intake (ALI) permissible dose levels on and around sealed source housing

Session 28

Demonstrate the  Importance of ALRA principle

Session 30

Session 32

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

   I am working as Assoc. Prof in the Department of Physics. I obtained M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph.D in Physics from Andhra University. I published number of papers. My specialization is Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy and also interested in computational methods and material science.