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• To study and compare between various theories of atomic structure.
• To know the most common structure and hybridization observed for different compounds.
• To use periodic trend to understand the chemistry of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, transition as well as inner transition elements.
After completion of the course, students will be able to,
|CO1||Acquire knowledge in the structure, bonding, and hybridisation of different compounds, their periodic properties and the quantum mechanical aspect.|
|CO2||Solve problems of different wave functions and wave equations.|
|CO3||Improved experimental and theoretical knowledge by analyzing the data.|
|CO4||Develop problem solving aptitude related to behavior of different compounds|
|CO5||Develop innovative ideas to apply in journal publications.|
Bohr’s theory, its limitations and atomic spectrum of hydrogen atom, Wave mechanics: de Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and its significance, Schrodinger’s wave equation, significance of Ψ and Ψ2.
Assignment-1: Photoelectric Effect
Assigment-2: Sommerfeld Extension of the Bohr Theory
Practice-1: Determine the atomic configuration and bonding ability (Vlab)
Practice-2: Rutherford’s gold foil experiments
Quantum numbers and their significance, Normalized and orthogonal wave functions. Sign of wave functions.Radial and angular wave functions for hydrogen atom. Radial and angular distribution curves. Shapes of s, p, d and f orbital's. Contour boundary and probability diagrams. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity, Aufbau’s principle and its limitations, Variation of orbital energy with atomic number.
Assignment-3: Atomic term symbol
Practice-3: Build an Atom (VLab)
Practice-4: Early experiment to characterize the atom
s, p, d, f block elements, the long form of periodic table. Detailed discussion of the following properties of the elements with reference to s and p-block, Effective nuclear charge, shielding or screening effect, Slater rules, variation of effective nuclear charge in periodic table, Atomic radii (van der Waals), Ionic and crystal radii, covalent radii (octahedral and tetrahedral), Ionization enthalpy, Successive ionization enthalpies and factors affecting ionization energy, Applications of ionization enthalpy
Assignment-4: Application of effective nuclear charge
Assignment-5: Shielding effect of inner-shell electrons on the valence shell electron
Practice-5: The Periodic table of elements (Vlab)
Electron gain enthalpy, trends of electron gain enthalpy. Electronegativity, Pauling’s/ Mulliken’s electronegativity scales. Variation of electronegativity with bond order, partial charge, hybridization, group electronegativity.
Assignment-6: Polarizing powder and Polarizability
Practice-6: Estimation of free alkali present in different soaps/detergents (Vlab)
Practice-7: Estimation of Barium (Vlab)
Practice-8: Estimation of Fe(II) and oxalic acid using standardized KMnO4 solution
Chemical Bonding-I(Ionic Bonding)
Ionic bond: General characteristics, types of ions, size effects, radius ratio rule and its limitations, Packing of ions in crystals, Born-Lande equation Madelung constant, Born-Haber cycle and its application, solvation energy.
Assignment-7: Radius ratio of different cubic crystal structures
Practice-9: Determine the solubilities of solid compounds in water and in ethanol.
Chemical Bonding-II (Covalent Bonding-I)
Covalent bond: Lewis structure, Valence Bond theory (Heitler-London approach), Energetic of hybridization, equivalent and non-equivalent hybrid orbitals, Resonance and resonance energy, Molecular orbital theory. Molecular orbital diagrams of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules, Formal charge, Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR).
Assignment-8: Wave mechanical treatment of covalent bond
Practice-10: Comparing ionic and Covalent compounds (Vlab)
Practice-11: Compare the melting points of various compounds.
Chemical Bonding-III (Covalent Bonding-II)
Covalent character in ionic compounds, polarizing power and polarisability, Fajan’s rules and consequences of polarization, Ionic character in covalent compounds: Bond moment and dipole moment, Percentage ionic character from dipole moment and electronegativity difference
Assignment-9: Molecular orbital’s for homonuclear diatomic molecules
Assignment-10: Term symbols for a diatomic molecule
Practice-12: Determine the conductivity of water solutions of the soluble solids
1. Lee, J.D. Concise Inorganic Chemistry, ELBS, 1991.
2. Douglas, B.E. and Mc Daniel, D.H., Concepts & Models of Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford, 1970
3. Atkins, P.W. & Paula, J. Physical Chemistry, Oxford Press, 2006.
4. Day, M.C. and Selbin, J. Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry, ACS Publications 1962.
Bohr’s theory, its limitations and atomic spectrum of hydrogen atom
Wave mechanics: de Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and its significance
Practice-1 (2 hours): Determine the atomic configuration and bonding ability (Vlab)
Practice-2 (2 hours): Rutherford’s gold foil experiments (Vlab)
Normalized and orthogonal wave functions. Sign of wave functions.
Practice-4 (2 hours): Early experiment to characterize the atom
Ionic bond: General characteristics, types of ions, size effects, radius ratio rule and its limitations.
Energetic of hybridization, equivalent and non-equivalent hybrid orbitals, Resonance and resonance energy.
Molecular orbital theory. Molecular orbital diagrams of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules.