Basic Radiation Physics


Amit Sharma


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Course Name : Basic Radiation Physics

Code(Credit) : CUTM1762(3-0-1)

Course Objectives:
• At the end of the course, the student should be able to comprehend the following:
• Production of x rays.
• Quality and quantity of radiation and its application in radiology.
• Application of radiation in Imaging technology.
• Factors affecting the image quality.
Course Outcomes:
CO1: To understand cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation.
CO2: To execute proper use of radiation monitoring device.
CO3: Analysis of techniques with minimal radiation exposure
CO4: To be able to evaluate radioactive decay, half-life, mean life decay series.

Course Syllabus


Modern Atomic Physics: Constituents of matters & atomic structure, orbits and orbital, binding energy and mass defect, isotopes, isotones and isobars, electromagnetic and particle radiations.


Introduction of X-ray tube : Features of X-ray tube, anode, cathode and filament, characteristics of target materials, cooling system, insulation and tube housing, filters, rating of tubes, faults of X-ray tubes; Interaction of radiation with matter – coherent, Compton, Photoelectric, pair production and photon disintegration.


TYPES OF X RAY TUBES & GENERATORS : Gas tube, Hot cathode tube, fixed anode and rotating anode tube, line-focus tube, dual focus tube, Mammography X-ray tube; X-ray generators, power supply: transformers, Half-wave and full-wave rectifications, Exposure timer.


Heat radiation, perfect black body, Stefan law, application in Diagnostic Radiology (Heat dissipation in both stationary and rotating X-ray tubes).


Heat Definition of heat, temperature, Heat capacity, specific heat capacity, Heat transferconduction, convection, radiation, thermal conductivity, equation for thermal conductivity (k), the value of k of various material of interest in radiology, thermal expansion, Newton’s law of cooling,


Physical Principles of X-ray Diagnosis: Radiological images: Photon fluence, Unsharpness, resolution, Contrast, scattered radiation, grids,fluoroscopy. Portable x-ray & Mobile X-Ray machine.


Radioactivity: Radioactivity decay, half-life & mean-life, decay series, modes of decay: alpha, beta and gamma radiation, electron capture, internal conversion, isomeric transition, production of radioisotopes. Production of X-Rays: Discovery and origin of X-rays, Production of X-rays, Nature and properties of Xrays, Energy spectrum, characteristic radiations & bremsstrahlung radiation, X rays interaction with matter, Absorption, scattering and quality of X-rays, HVT and TVT, Angular distribution.


Text books

  1. Textbook of Radiological Safety by K. Thalayan, Publisher Jaypee brothers
  2. Advance Medical Physic by Rehani, Publisher Jaypee brothers
  3. Basic of Radiological Physics by K.Thalayan,Publisher Jaypee brothers

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