Basics of Genetics


Dr. Srimay Pradhan


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Course Name : Basics of Genetics

Code(Credit) : CUTM1461(3-2-1)

Course Objectives

• The basic principles of inheritance at the molecular, cellular and organism levels.
• Describe the mechanisms governing Mendelian inheritance, gene interactions and gene expression.
• Apply principles of genetics to real-world problems in biology.

Learning Outcomes

  • • Apply quantitative problem-solving skills to genetics problems and issues
    • Demonstrate their ability to reason both inductively and deductively with experimental information and data.
    • Pursue higher studies to get employability opportunity

Course Syllabus


Mendelian genetics and its extension: Mendelism: History; Principles of inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Autosomes and sex chromosomes; Probability and pedigree analysis


Mendel’s laws through seed ratios. Laboratory exercises in probability and chi-square.

Pedigree analysis for dominant and recessive autosomal and sex linked traits.


Incomplete dominance and codominance; Multiple alleles, Lethal alleles, Epistasis, Pleiotropy, Recessive and Dominant traits
Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Chloroplast mutation: Variegation in Four o’clock plant; Mitochondrial mutations in yeast;Maternal effects-shell coiling in snail; Infective heredity- Kappa particles in Paramecium.


Incomplete dominance and gene interaction through seed ratios (9:7, 9:6:1, 13:3, 15:1, 12:3:1,9:3:4).


Linkage, crossing over and chromosome mapping: Linkage and crossing over-Cytological basis of crossing over; Recombination frequency, two factor and three factor crosses; Interference and coincidence; Numericals based on gene mapping; Sex Linkage.


Chromosome mapping using point test cross data.


Variation in chromosome number and structure: Deletion, Duplication, Inversion, Translocation, Euploidy and Aneuploidy.


Study of aneuploidy: Down’s, Klinefelter’s and Turner’s syndromes.


Gene mutations: Types of mutations; Molecular basis of Mutations; Mutagens – physical and chemical (Base analogs, deaminating, alkylating and intercalating agents); Detection of mutations: ClB method. Role of Transposons in mutation. DNA repair mechanisms.


Photographs/Permanent slides showing Translocation ring, Laggards and Inversion bridge.


Fine structure of gene: Classical vs molecular concepts of gene; Cis-Trans complementation test for functional allelism; Structure of Phage T4, rII Locus.


Blood Typing: ABO groups & Rh factor.


Population and Evolutionary Genetics: Allele frequencies, Genotype frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg Law, role of natural selection, mutation, genetic drift. Genetic variation and Speciation.


Study of human genetic traits: Sickle cell anemia, Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Albinism, red-green Colour blindness, Widow’s peak, rolling of tongue, Hitchhiker’s thumb and attached ear lobe.

Text Book

1. Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J., Snustad, D.P. (1991). Principles of Genetics, John Wiley & sons, India. 8th edition.

2. Snustad, D.P. and Simmons, M.J. (2010). Principles of Genetics, John Wiley & Sons Inc., India. 5th edition.

3. Klug, W.S., Cummings, M.R., Spencer, C.A. (2009). Concepts of Genetics. Benjamin Cummings, U.S.A. 9th edition.

Reference Book

1. Griffiths, A.J.F., Wessler, S.R., Carroll, S.B., Doebley, J. (2010). Introduction to Genetic Analysis. W. H. Freeman and Co., U.S.A. 10th edition.

Session Plan

Session 1

Session 5 (Assignment-1) 1 hour

Session 6 (Practice-1) 2 hours

Session 9

Session 10

Session 11 (Assignment-2) 1 hour

Session 13 (Practice-3) 2 hours

Session 17 (Assignment-3) 1 hour

Session 23

Session 24 (Assignment-4) 1 hour

Session 25 (Practice-6) 2 hours

Session 28

Session 29

Session 30 (Assignment-5) 1 hour

Session 32

Session 35 (Assignment-6) 1 hour

Session 44 (Assignment-7) 1 hour

Session 46

Session 48

Session 49

Session 50 (Assignment-8) 1 hour

Session 52 (Practice-12) 2 hours

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

Dr. Srimay Pradhan

Assistant Professor in Department of Botany, School of Applied Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management

Dr. Srimay Pradhan is presently working as an assistant professor (Botany) in School of applied Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management. Apart from this, he is also persuing his doctoral research on diversity, distribution and ethnomedicinal uses of Lichens from Centurion University of Technology and Management. He has completed his Master (Botany) from Department […]