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Students will be able to
•Understand the structures and purposes of basic components of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, especially macromolecules, membranes, and organelles.
•Exploration of different types of biomolecules and the importance in cellular composition..
•Carry out a range of laboratory exercises, demonstrating the development of practical scientific skills.
•Know about the structure and functions of macromolecules and the major organelles that occur in eukaryotic cells.
Biomolecules I: Types and significance of chemical bonds; Structure and properties of water; pH and buffers.Carbohydrates:Nomenclature and classification; Monosaccharides; Disaccharides; Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Lipids: Definition and major classes of storage and structural lipids; Fatty acids structure and functions; Essential fatty acids; Triacylglycerols structure, functions and properties.
Practice: 1. Qualitative tests for carbohydrates, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars.
2. Quantitative test for lipid.
3. Determination of pH in waste water sample.
Biomolecules II: Nucleic acids:Structure of nitrogenous bases; Structure and function of nucleotides; Types of nucleic acids; Structure of A, B, Z types of DNA; Types of RNA; Structure of tRNA.
Proteins:Structure of amino acids; Levels of protein structure-primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary; Protein denaturation and biological roles of proteins.
Practice: 1. Qualitative tests for Proteins.
2. Cytochemical staining of: DNA- Feulgen and cell wall in the epidermal peel of onion using Periodic Schiff’s (PAS) staining technique.
Bioenergenetics:Laws of thermodynamics, concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reactions,Phosphoglycerides.Coupled reactions, redox reactions. ATP: structure, its role as a energy currency molecule.
Enzymes:Structure of enzyme: holoenzyme, apoenzyme, cofactors, coenzymes and prostheticgroup;Classification of enzymes; Features of active site, substrate specificity, mechanism of action (activation energy, lock and key hypothesis, induced - fit theroy), Michaelis– Mentenequation,enzyme inhibition and factors affecting enzyme activity.
The cell:Cell as a unit of structure and function; Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Originofeukaryotic cell (Endosymbiotic theory).
Cell wall and plasma membrane:Chemistry, structure and function of Plant cell wall. Overview of membrane function; fluid mosaic model; Chemical composition of membranes; Membrane transport – Passive, active and facilitated transport, endocytosis and exocytosis.
Practice: 1. Study of plant cell structure with the help of epidermal peel mount of Onion/Rhoeo/Crinum.
2. Demonstration of the phenomenon of protoplasmic streaming in Hydrilla leaf.
3. Study the phenomenon of plasmolysis and deplasmolysis.
4. Study the effect of organic solvent and temperature on membrane permeability.
Nucleus:Structure-nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complex, nuclear lamina, molecular organization ofchromatin; nucleolus.
Cytoskeleton:Role and structure of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediary filament.
Chloroplast, mitochondria and peroxisomes:Structural organization; Function; Semiautonomous nature of mitochondria and chloroplast.
Practice: 1.Measurement of cell size by the technique of micrometry.
Endomembrane system:Endoplasmic Reticulum–Structure, targeting and insertion of proteins in the ER,protein folding, processing; Smooth ER and lipid synthesis, export of proteins and lipids; Golgi Apparatus – organization, protein glycosylation, protein sorting and export from Golgi Apparatus.
Practice: 1.Study of cell and its organelles with the help of electron micrographs.
Cell division:Phases of eukaryotic cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis; Regulation of cell cycle- checkpoints, roleof protein kinases.
Practice: 1. Study different stages of mitosis and meiosis.
1. Campbell, MK (2012) Biochemistry, 7th ed., Published by Cengage Learning
2. Campbell, PN and Smith AD (2011) Biochemistry Illustrated, 4th ed., Published by Churchill Livingstone
3. Tymoczko JL, Berg JM and Stryer L (2012) Biochemistry: A short course, 2nd ed., W.H.Freeman
4. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L (2011) Biochemistry, W.H.Freeman and Company
5. Nelson DL and Cox MM (2008) Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company.
6. Karp, G. (2010). Cell Biology, John Wiley & Sons, U.S.A. 6th edition.
7. Hardin, J., Becker, G., Skliensmith, L.J. (2012). Becker’s World of the Cell, Pearson Education Inc. U.S.A. 8th edition.
8. Cooper, G.M. and Hausman, R.E. (2009) The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 5th edition. ASM Press & Sunderland, Washington, D.C.; Sinauer Associates, MA.
9. Becker, W.M., Kleinsmith, L.J., Hardin. J. and Bertoni, G. P. (2009) The World of the Cell. 7th edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings Publishing, San Francisco.
Types and significance of chemical bonds.
Structure and Properties of water
Nomenclature and classification; Monosaccharides; Disaccharides; Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Definition and major classes of storage and structural lipids
Fatty acids structure and functions and Essential fatty acids.
Triacyl glycerols structure, functions and properties.
Qualitative tests for carbohydrates, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars.
Determination of pH in waster water sample.
Structure of amino acids and level of Protein structure and function
Cytochemical staining of: DNA- Feulgen and cell wall in the epidermal peel of onion using Periodic Schiff’s (PAS) staining technique.
Laws of thermodynamics and concept of free energy.
Endergonic and exergonic reactions, Coupled reactions, redox reactions.
ATP: structure, its role as a energy currency molecule.
Structure and classification of enzyme.
Features of active site, substrate specificity.
Mechanism of enzyme action and Michaelis– Menten Equation,
Enzyme inhibition and factors affecting enzyme activity.
Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Study of plant cell structure with the help of epidermal peel mount of Onion/Rhoeo/Crinum
Measurement of cell size by the technique of micrometry.
Chemistry, structure and function of Plant cell wall
Chemical composition and function of membranes.
Study the effect of organic solvent and temperature on membrane permeability.
Demonstration of the phenomenon of protoplasmic streaming in Hydrilla leaf.
Study the phenomenon of plasmolysis and deplasmolysis.
Structure-nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complex, nuclear lamina.
molecular organization of chromatin.
Role and structure of cytoskeleton.
Structural organization and Function Mitocondria and chloroplast
Smooth ER and lipid synthesis.
Golgi Apparatus – organization and protein glycosylation
Protein sorting and export from Golgi Apparatus.
Study of cell and its organelles with the help of electron micrographs.
Phases of eukaryotic cell cycle and regulation.
Study different stages of mitosis and meiosis.
Describe germ cell divission process in eukaryote.
Have specialization in Biochemistry and Molecular biology. Qualified GATE and NET. Research interest in Biochemistry, Microbiology and taxonomy. Teaching expertise in subject Cell biology, molecular biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Plant physiology and metabolism.