Chemistry of milk


A Avinash


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Course Name : Chemistry of Milk.

Code(Credit) : CUTM1149 (2-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • Acquaint students with the definition, chemical composition and structure of milk.
  • To impart knowledge regarding classification of milk proteins, milk enzymes, milk carbohydrates, milk lipids and milk salts etc.
  • Demonstrate metallic contamination of milk.

Course Outcomes

CO1: Able to know the chemistry of milk protein, fat, and carbohydrate their structure, fractions and their composition in milk: PO1, PO12

CO2: Estimation of the chemical composition of milk like protein, fat, total solids, SNF, lactose, ash, enzymes such as alkaline phosphate and lipase in milk etc: PO4

CO3: Able to know the chemical structure of different molecules, charge distribution, amino acid, fatty acid sequence, mineral composition etc: PO1, PO6, PO12

PO1: Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems.

PO4: Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions.

PO6: The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice.

PO12: Life-long learning: Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change.

Course Syllabus

Module-I: Milk definition, composition and variation (1 hr)

  • Definition, structure of milk and factors affecting composition of milk

Practice (2 hrs)

  • Sampling techniques of chemical examination of milk
  • Determination of pH and titratable acidity of milk

Module-II: Milk Proteins (5 hrs)

  • Casein: Isolation, fractionation and chemical composition, physico-chemical properties of casein
  • Whey proteins: Preparation of total whey proteins: α-Lactalbumin and β-Lactoglobulin.
  • Properties of α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, Immmunoglobulin and other minor milk proteins and non-proteins nitrogen constituents of milk
  • Hydrolysis and denaturation of milk proteins under different physical and chemical environments
  • Estimation of milk proteins using different physical and chemical methods. Importance of genetic polymorphism of milk proteins.

Practice (2 hrs)

  • Determination of casein, whey proteins and NPN in milk.
  • Determination of total milk proteins by Kjeldahal method.

Module-III: Enzymes in milk (2 hrs)

  • Milk enzymes with special reference to lipases, Xanthine Oxidase, phosphatases, proteases and lacto-peroxidase

Practice (1 hr)

  • Estimation of alkaline phosphatase and lipase in milk.

Module-IV: Milk Carbohydrates (4 hrs)

  • Milk carbohydrates their status and importance.
  • Physical and chemical properties of lactose
  • Sugar amine condensation, amadori rearrangement, production of hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF), Processing related degradation of lactose

Practice (1 hr):

  • Determination of lactose in milk.

Module-V: Milk lipids (4 hrs)

  • Definition, general composition and classification of milk lipids.
  • Nomenclature and general structure of glycerides, factors affecting the fatty acid composition.
  • Milk phospholipids and their role in milk products, unsaponifiable matter
  • Fat soluble vitamins

Practice (2 hrs)

  • Determination of fat in milk by different methods.
  • Determination of total solids and solids not fat in milk

Module-VI: Salt composition and metals (3 hrs)

  • Milk Salts: Mineral in milk (a) major mineral (b) Trace elements
  • Physical equilibria among the milk salts
  • Milk contact surfaces and metallic contamination.

Practice (5 hrs)

  • Determination of ash in milk.
  • Determination of phosphorus and calcium in milk.
  • Determination of chloride in milk.
  • Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of water.
  • Estimation of available chlorine from bleaching powder.

Suggested Readings:


Text Books:

  • Fox, P. F. and Sweeny, Mc. (1998). Dairy Chemistry and Bio-Chemistry. Academic /Platinum Publ., NewYork.
  • Jenness, R. and Patton, S. (1984). Principles of Dairy Chemistry. Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
  • Mathur, M.P., Datta, D. R., and Dinakar, P. (1999). Text book of Dairy Chemistry, Directorate of Information and Publs., ICAR, New Delhi.

Online Source:

Session Plan

Session 1

Definition, structure of milk and factors affecting composition of milk

Session 2 (Practice)

Sampling techniques of chemical examination of milk

Session 3 (Practice)

Determination of pH and titratable acidity of milk

Session 4

Casein: Isolation, fractionation and chemical composition, physico-chemical properties of casein

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

A Avinash

Asst Professor

A.Avinash working as Assistant Professor, Dept of CSE, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Andhra Pradesh . Interested to work on Machine learning,Natural Language Processing,Problem Solving Methodologies , and ChatBot. Programming Skill: C Programming Data Structure Object Oriented Programming using C++ Formal Language Automata Theory Python Web Development(HTML,CSS,PHP) Database Management Systems Compilers