Digital Measurement and Instrumentation

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Code(Credit) : CUTM1056(2-1-0)

Course Objectives

• The main objective of this course is to explain the operation, performance and application of Digital Measuring Instruments to the students.

Learning Outcomes

On completion of this course a student will

• Understand the construction, principle and characteristics of different types of digital measuring instruments
• Apply the knowledge about different instruments and can identify the best suitable instrument for a required typical measurement.
• Learn about the digital programming of different types of circuits.
• Understand the conversion of  digital to analog signal and vice versa.

Course Syllabus

Module I                                                                                                                                 (6 hrs)

Philosophy of digital measurements

Time Measurement Techniques: Error analysis in digital measurement, Measurement of time interval between two events, Error in time interval measurement, Vernier technique for small time measurement, Measurement of time interval with constraints, Measurement of periodic time, phase, Quality factor of ringing circuit, Decibel meter, Software controlled measurement.

Practice

1. Absolute and relative error analysis of digital measurement using Matlab
2. Simulation of Quality Factor of ringing circuit

Module II                                                                                                                               (5 hrs)

Digital frequency measurement techniques

Measurement of frequency, Ratio of two frequencies, Product of two frequencies, High frequency, average Frequency difference, Deviation of power frequency, Peak frequency. Fast low-frequency measurement, Digital Tachometer.

Practice

3.Addition and product of different frequencies using Matlab

4. Simulation of digital tachometer using Matlab

Module III                                                                                                                              (5 hrs)

Digitally Programmable Circuits

Single mode switching, Group mode switching, Resistors, Potentiometers, Amplifiers, Schmitt trigger, Dual polarity gain amplifiers. Programmable gain amplifier with dual output, Two stage programming, Programmable Biquads.

Practice:

5. Analysis of switching using Matlab

6. Simulation of programmable biquads using Matlab

Module IV                                                                                                                              (4 hrs)

Digital to Analog Converters

Output Input relation, DACs derived from programmable gain amplifiers, Weighted-resistor DAC, Weighted current DAC, Weighted reference voltage DAC, Ladder DAC, Switches.

Practice:

7. Simulation of programmable gain amplifier using Matlab

8. Simulation of DAC using Matlab

Module V                                                                                                                               (5 hrs)

Digital Voltage Measurement Techniques

Sampling theorem, Time-division multiplexing, Quantization, Indirect type A/D converters, Direct type A/D converters, Input circuitry of a digital voltmeter.

Practice:

9. Simulation of Digital voltmeter using Matlab

10. Analysis and simulation of digital multi-meter.

Module VI                                                                                                                              (4 hrs)

Digital Instrument

Need for digital instruments, Advantages of digital instruments, Essentials of digital instrument, Performance characteristics of digital instrument.

Digital Recording Systems

Input Conditioning Equipment, Digitizer, Multiplexer, Programme Pinboard, Linearizer, Digital Clock, Limit Detectors, Output Devices

Practice:

11. Data fetching using controllers

12. Simulation of digital clock using Matlab

Module VII:                                                                                                                           (4 hrs)

Signal Generator, Analyzers and Oscilloscopes:

Function Generator, Pulse Generator, RF Signal Generator, Harmonic Distortion Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer, Digital Storage CROs

Practice:

13. To study block wise Construction of a Function Generator

14. Measure Voltage, Frequency, Phase and Modulation Index (Trapezoidal               Method) using CRO

15. Demonstrate features of Digital Storage Oscilloscope

16. Measure unknown Frequency using Lissajous Patterns

Text Books:

1.  T. S. Rathore- Digital Measurement Techniques, Alpha Science International Ltd
2. David A. Bell - Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements, Oxford Univ. Press, 1997
3. A. K. Sawhney – A Course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation, Dhanpat Rai & Co

Reference Books:

1. Prithwiraj Purkait- Electrical and Electronics Measurement and Instrumentation, MC Graw Hill Publishers
2. H. S. Kalsi- Electronic Instrumentation, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2010
3. R. K. Rajput- Electrical & Electronic measurement and Instrumentation, S. Chand Publication
4. K. Lal Kishore- Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation, Pearson Education 2010

Session 1

Time Measurement Techniques: Error analysis in digital measurement, Measurement of time interval between two events, Error in time interval measurement.

Session 2

Vernier technique for small time measurement, Measurement of time interval with constraints

Session 3

Measurement of periodic time, phase, Quality factor of ringing circuit

Session 4

Decibel meter, Software controlled measurement

Session 5

LAB:Performimg the error analysis of digital measurement using Matlab

Session 6

LAB:Performing the Simulation of Quality Factor of ringing circuit in Matlab

Session 7

LAB:Performing the Simulation of Quality Factor of ringing circuit in Matlab

Session 8

Measurement of frequency, Ratio of two frequencies, Product of two frequencies

Session 9

LAB: To perform the addition and product of different frequencies using Matlab

Session 10

High frequency, average Frequency difference, Deviation of power frequency, Peak frequency,Fast low-frequency measurement

Session 11

Digital Tachometer

LAB:Simulation of digital tachometer using Matlab

Session 12

Single mode switching, Group mode switching

LAB:Analysis of switching using Matlab

Session 13

Resistors, Potentiometers, Amplifiers

Session 14

Schmitt trigger, Dual polarity gain amplifiers

Session 15

Programmable gain amplifier with dual output, Two stage programming

Session 16

LAB:Simulation of programmable biquads using Matlab

Session 17

Digital to Analog Converters:Output Input relation, DACs derived from programmable gain amplifiers

LAB:Simulation of programmable gain amplifier using Matlab

Session 18

Weighted-resistor DAC, Weighted current DAC

Session 19

Weighted reference voltage DAC, Ladder DAC, Switches

Session 20

LAB:Simulation of DAC using Matlab

Session 21

Digital Voltage Measurement Techniques:Sampling theorem, Time-division multiplexing

Session 22

Quantization, Indirect type A/D converters

Session 23

Direct type A/D converters

Session 24

Input circuitry of a digital voltmeter

LAB:Simulation of Digital voltmeter using Matlab

Session 25

LAB:Analysis and simulation of digital multi-meter

Session 26

Need for digital instruments, Advantages of digital instruments, Essentials of digital instrument,Performance characteristics of digital instrument

Session 27

Input Conditioning Equipment, Digitizer, Multiplexer

Session 28

Programme Pinboard, Linearizer, Digital Clock

LAB:Simulation of digital clock using Matlab

Session 29

Limit Detectors, Output Devices

LAB:Data fetching using controllers

Session 30

Function Generator

LAB:To study block wise Construction of a Function Generator

Session 31

Pulse Generator, RF Signal Generator

Session 32

Harmonic Distortion Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer

LAB:Measure unknown Frequency using Lissajous Patterns

Session 33

Digital Storage CROs

LAB: 1)Measure Voltage, Frequency, Phase and Modulation Index (Trapezoidal Method) using CRO

2)Demonstrate features of Digital Storage Oscilloscope