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Domain Track Objectives:
To impart and encourage students to get inculcate and accustomed to the industry-academia propagation of horticulture plants at large scale.
Domain Track Learning Outcome:
Track Courses (3-6-0)
Practice Courses (0-9-0)
AELP Project (0-0-11)
Course Outcome (CO) - Program Outcome (PO) Mapping:
|COs||Course Outcome||Mapping COs with POs|
|CO1||Imparting molecular knowledge to approach and analyze the in-vitro micro-propagated plants through virus-indexing and genetic fidelity.||PO1, PO2, PO5|
|CO2||Entrepreneurship based hands-on knowledge acquisition for students to produce large scale commercially important GM-free horticulture plants.||PO1, PO2, PO3, PO4, PO6|
PO1: Knowledge Enrichment: Hands-on experience of molecular approach on plants, basic concepts, disciplinary approaches to maintain hygienic conditions and propagation of plants at large-scale.
PO2: Professional Development: Learning the principles and set the everlasting-systematic professionalism.
PO3: Entrepreneurship Skills: Managerial (financial, administration with technical expertise) aspects gets inculcated in students during the process of production of the plants in the lab and reaching the same to farmer’s in the land.
PO4: Extension & Team Work: Practical field experience for students to communicate directly with farmers with live demonstration.
PO5: Educational Leadership: Networking academia-industry to address the emerging climate-based challenges in agriculture.
PO6: Integrity & Uniqueness: Commitment, systematic and timely execution of the tasks, application oriented research and production.
Introduction to Laboratory organization: Tools and techniques, methods of sterilization. Laboratory contaminants- it’s control and measures.
Media and Culture Preparation: Role of Micro and macro nutrients, Vitamins and carbon source in tissue culture, Media preparation- pH, Temperature, Solidifying agents, Slant Preparations etc. Maintenance of cultures, Environmental Conditions, explants characteristics.
Culture techniques: Explants selection, sterilization and inoculation; Various media preparations; MS, B5, SH PC L-2; Callus and cell suspension culture.
Initiation of Cultures: Induction and growth parameters; Culture initiation, Callus culture., Micro-propagation through various explants (Leaf, Stem, Axillary bud, Tuber, Corms and Bulbills).
In-vitro Fertilization: Role of Ovary and ovule in in-vitro Fertilization in production of agricultural and horticultural crops. Techniques and significance of Androgenesis and Gynogenesis (ovary, ovule, egg, synergids culture).
Practice: Tools and techniques, methods of sterilization. Laboratory contaminants, Media preparation- pH, Temperature, Solidifying agents, Slant Preparations, Explants selection, sterilization and inoculation.
Organ Culture: Anther, Pollen, Embryo and Endosperm culture, Hairy Root Culture and their applications. Organogenesis and Somatic embryogenesis- Techniques and Applications.
Protoplast Culture: Protoplast-Isolation regeneration and Viability test, Somatic hybridization and methods of protoplast fusion- chemical, Viral, electrofusion. Practical application of somatic hybridization and cybridization.
Crop Improvement: Somaclonal variation, its genetic basis and application in crop improvement. Cell/callus line selection for resistance to herbicide, stress and diseases. Role of tissue culture in rapid clonal propagation, production of pathogen - free plants and “synthetic seeds”.
Transgenics: Transgenic plants for crop improvement (dicot and Monocot including Maize, Rice, Wheat, Cotton, Brinjal etc. Resistance to herbicide, insecticide, virus and other diseases, Flavr savr tomato, barnase and barstar, etc). Transgenic plants for molecular farming.
Plant transformation: Methods of gene transfer in plants. Agrobacterium and CaMV mediated gene transfer; direct gene transfer using PEG, micro injection, electroporation, microprojectile (biolistics) method, liposome mediated DNA delivery; Transposons as vectors.
Practice: Anther, Pollen, Embryo and Endosperm culture, Hairy Root Culture and their applications. Organogenesis and Somatic embryogenesis- Techniques, Protoplast-Isolation regeneration and Viability test, methods of protoplast fusion- chemical, Viral, electrofusion. Synthetic seed preparation, callus line propagation and selection for abiotic/biotic stress tolerance, Agrobacterium gene transfer.
Vegetative Propagation I: Introduction, Reasons to propagate by cuttings, Types -softwood, hardwood, semi hardwood, herbaceous, Stem Cuttings, Tip, heel, nodal, basal Leaf and Leaf-bud cuttings, Cane cuttings, Root Cuttings, Bulb Cuttings, Hormone Treatments for Cutting Propagation, Other Cutting Treatments; basal wounding, anti-transpirants, fungicides, disinfectants, mycorrhiza, etc. Artificial Light for Propagation, Cutting Propagation Efficiency, Rockwool Propagation.
Vegetative Propagation II: Care of stock plants, Layering, Division, Terminology and Managing Watering.
Vegetative Propagation III: Terminology, Budding and grafting, Reasons for Grafting, how a Graft forms, Grafting Techniques; Types of Grafts, What Plant to Graft on What Grafting Materials, Root Grafting, Bench Grafting, Soft Tissue Grafting.
Propagation Structures and Materials: Growing in a Greenhouse, Growing Structures: Types of Greenhouses, Cold Frames, Shadehouses, Propagating equipment -Heaters, Bottom Heat, Misting, Light Control, Benches etc., Managing a Greenhouse.
Practice: Preparation of different types of cuttings for ornamental crops and vegetable crops i.e., Croton, Acalypha, Araelia, Diffenbachia, Coleus, Sanseveria, Chrysanthemum, Tuberose Ivy gourd, Pointed gourd, water spinach, Drum stick, Elephant foot yam, Colocasia and curry leaf.
Practice of different types of grafting and budding methods for fruit and ornamental crops i.e., Mango, Rose, Sapota, Citrus Spp. Practice of different types of layering for fruit and ornamental crops i.e., Bougainvilllea, Guava, Litchi, Pomegranate and lime.
Micropropagation and its Applications; Types, Stages, Establishment of propagated plants, micropropagation for large scale multiplication of crop plants, forest trees, medicinal plants and ornamentals. Germplasm preservation- Definition, Importance and Methods, In-situ and Ex-situ conservation, Centers of germplasm preservation in India. Hardening: Hardening stages, Role of Polyhouse, Net House, Compost, Chemical fertilizer, Cocopit, Soil in hardening. Floriculture – commercial floriculture – Production of cut flowers and home floriculture. Disease and pest control in gardening- Fungicides and pesticides. Plant growing problems and their control, cold house storage. Commercial Horticulture: Propagation of Horticultural crops by tissue culture techniques such as Banana, Sugarcane, Papaya, Mango and some Medicinal and Aromatic plants.
Preparation of various Tissue culture media (MS, B5, Gamber’s etc.), Effect of Growth Hormones on organogenesis: a) Shoot differentiation, b) Callus differentiation, Root differentiation. Single cell culture. Shoot tip, auxillary bud, Meristem culture. Propagation of horticultural. Propagation of Medicinal plants. Propagation of Aromatic plants. Hardening methods and their utility. Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Protoplast fusion by PEG. Preparation of artificial seeds. Liposome mediated gene transfer. Effect of Auxins and Gibberllins on seed germination. Studies on enzyme amylase. Effect of temperature and alcohol on permeability of cell membrane. Test for starch, Glucose, Tannins and Alkaloids. Isolation of DNA and RNA from Plants. Amplification of plant DNA by using random primer. Determination of specific activity of the enzyme. Separation of DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis.
Plant genetic resources- Different kinds of PGR basic, derived and molecular, core collections, principles of germplasm characterization, DNA fingerprinting and plant barcodes, germplasm evaluation, maintenance and regeneration, In-situ and ex-situ methods of conservation, cryopreservation of genetic materials, gene banks and cryobanks.
Session Plan: Plant tissue culture and vegetative propagation
Basics of Plant tissue culture and tools and techniques involved.
Demonstration of the usage of tools and techniques in Plant tissue culture.
Sterilization and its importance in tissue culture. Control and measure of contamination.
Demonstration of different kinds of sterilization techniques.
Composition of plant growth media, micro and macro-nutrients, vitamins, and carbon sources.
Demonstration of different kinds of plant growth media preaparation.
Role of temperature, pH, and solidifying agents in growth media.
The sterilizing and incubation technique of media.
Preparation of various media; MS, B5, SH PC L-2. Explant selection and sterilization.
Media preparation following standardize protocols.
Explant selection, callus culture, cell suspension culture
Demonstrating explant inoculation techniques.
Culture initiation under various growth parameters
Maintenance of incubated cultures in the growth period.
Micro-propagation using various plant parts such as stem, leaf, tubers, bulbils etc.
Inoculation of different plant parts as explant.
In-vitro fertilization in plants.
Demonstration of in-vitro fertilization in different agricultural and horticultural crops.
Androgenesis and gynogenesis
Techniques for ovary, ovule, synergid, anther cultures.
Organ culture and its significance.
Inoculation of various organs as explant for culture.
Somatic embryogenesis and its application.
Somatic embryo generation
Applications of endosperm culture, hairy -root culture.
Comparison of different cultures and their significance in commercial scale production. Demonstration on Endosperm culture.
Illustration on Protoplast culture
Demonstration on Isolation of protoplast and viability test
Illustration on Somatic hybridization methodology and protoplast fusion
Demonstration of chemical, viral, electrofusion methods of protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization
Illustration on soma clonal variation, its genetic basis and importance in crop improvement
Demonstration on Soma clonal variation creation in plants and practical crop improvement examples
Illustration on Cell/callus line selection for resistance to herbicide, stress and diseases.
Practical explanation of callus formation, selection of callus, and practical applications in field
Illustration on Rapid clonal propagation, production of pathogen- free plants and illustration on synthetic seeds
Demonstration on clonal propagation and practical breeding plot visit for synthetic seed production
Introduction to transgenics, Importance of transgenic plants in crop improvement in quality, crop improvement through transgenics in rice, maize, wheat, cotton. Methods of gene transfer in plants. Agrobacterium and CaMV mediated gene transfer
Demonstration of transgenic protocols in a laboratory, tools used in transgenics, (basic to advanced), safety precautions in handling the tools
Concept of plants acquiring resistance, to herbicides, diseases, virus.
Agrobacterium gene transfer standardized protocol and practical demonstration.
Introduction to propagation and its importance in commercial horticultural production
Exposure to green house, visit to nearest nurseries
Types of stem cuttings (Tip, heel, nodal, basal Leaf and Leaf-bud cuttings, Cane cuttings, Root Cuttings, Bulb Cuttings.
Preparation of different types of cuttings for ornamental crops and vegetable crops i.e., Croton, Acalypha, Araelia, Diffenbachia, Coleus, Sanseveria, Chrysanthemum, Tuberose Ivy gourd, Pointed gourd, water spinach, Drum stick, Elephant foot yam, Colocasia and curry leaf.
Hormone Treatments for Cutting Propagation, dosage and standard procedures
Practice: Demonstration on hormone applications
Artificial Light for Propagation, Cutting Propagation Efficiency, Rockwool Propagation.
Practice: Demonstration on propagation and procedures for making cuttings
Illustration on Cutting Treatments; basal wounding, anti-transpirants, fungicides, disinfectants, mycorrhiza
Demonstration on cutting treatments, basal wounding, application of anti transpirants, fungicides, disinfectants.
Care of stock plants, Layering, Division, Terminology and Managing Watering.
Demonstration on layering and water management,
Practice of different types of layering for fruit and ornamental crops i.e., Bougainvilllea, Guava, Litchi, Pomegranate and lime.
Terminology, Budding and grafting, Reasons for Grafting, how a Graft forms
Practical application on grafting, application of grafting in commercial scale production with live demonstrations in nurseries
Grafting Techniques; Types of Grafts, What Plant to Graft on What Grafting Materials, Root Grafting, Bench Grafting, Soft Tissue Grafting.
Grafting in laboratory premises and aquatinting with the technique
Introduction to greenhouses types and uses of different green houses
Growing in a Greenhouse, Growing Structures: Types of Greenhouses, Cold Frames, Shadehouses, Propagating equipment -Heaters, Bottom Heat, Misting, Light Control, Benches
Practical advantages of vegetative propagation, its use in commercial scale production and opportunities as entrepreneur
Visit to best available commercial nurseries and understanding the outcomes of the course
Micropropagation in plants
Germplasm preservation techniques
Hardening of tissue cultured plants; Steps and processes.
Floriculture; Disease and pest management in the garden
Commercial horticulture: Propagation of horticultural plants by using PTC technique.
Preparation of various plant tissue culture growth media.
Effect of growth hormones in organogenesis; Callus culture, meristem culture, single cell culture.
Methods of gene transfer: agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer, Liposome mediated gene transfer
Isolation of DNA and RNA from plant samples
Amplification of genomic DNA using PCR technology; Gel-electrophoresis technique for separating DNA fragments.
PGR conservation techniques; derived and molecular
DNA fingerprinting: methods and techniques.
Plant barcoding by using molecular techniques
Ex-situ and in-situ methods of PGR conservation.
Cryopreservation: Methods and techniques
List of Projects to be done under the Domain
Dr. Pushpalatha Ganesh, Professor & Head in the Department of Plant Biotechnology, M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Odisha, India. She possesses more than 11 years of research and teaching experience in Agricultural Biotechnology and Crop Physiology at several national level organizations including DRR, Hyderabad and NRCPB, IARI, […]