# Electromagnetic Theory

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# Code(Credit) : CUTM1495(3-2-1)

## Course Objectives

•  To provide the basic skills required to understand, develop, and design various engineering applications involving electromagnetic fields.
•  To lay the foundations of electromagnetism and its practice in modern communications such as wireless, guided wave principles such as fiber optics and electronic electromagnetic structures.
•  To understand the transverse nature of light.

## Learning Outcomes

 COs Course outcomes Mapping COs with POs (High-3, Medium-2, Low-1) CO2 Apply vector calculus to static electric-magnetic fields in different engineering situations. PO1-3, PO2-2 CO5 Analyze Maxwell’s equation in different forms. PO2-2, PO5-3, PO9-1 CO4 Examine the phenomena of wave propagation in different media and its interfaces and in applications of microwave engineering. PO1-3, PO7-1

## Course Outlines

Module-I

Maxwell Equations

Review of Maxwell’s equations. Displacement Current. Vector and Scalar Potentials. Gauge Transformations: Lorentz and Coulomb Gauge. Boundary Conditions at Interface between Different Media. Wave Equations. Plane Waves in Dielectric Media. Poynting Theorem and Poynting Vector. Electromagnetic (EM) Energy Density. Physical Concept of Electromagnetic Field Energy Density, Momentum Density and Angular Momentum Density.

Practice-1 To study the reflection, refraction of microwaves

Module-II

Electromagnetic Waves Propagation in Unbounded Media

Plane Electromagnetic waves through vacuum  and an isotropic dielectric medium, transverse nature of plane Electromagnetic waves, refractive index and dielectric constant, wave impedance. Propagation through conducting media, relaxation time, skin depth. Wave propagation through dilute plasma, electrical conductivity of ionized gases, plasma frequency, refractive index, skin depth, application to propagation through ionosphere.

Practice-2 To determine the refractive index of liquid by total internal reflection using Wollaston’s air-film

Module-III

Electromagnetic Waves in Bounded Media

Boundary conditions at a plane interface between two media. Reflection & Refraction of plane waves at plane interface between two dielectric media-Laws of Reflection & Refraction. Fresnel's Formulae for perpendicular & parallel polarization cases, Brewster's law. Reflection & Transmission coefficients. Total internal reflection.

Practice-3 To determine the refractive Index of (1) glass and (2) a liquid by total internal reflection .

practice-4 To study the polarization of light by reflection and determine the polarizing angle for air-glass interface

Module-IV

Electromagnetic Waves in anisotropic media

Propagation of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic Media. Symmetric Nature of Dielectric Tensor. Fresnel’s Formula. Uniaxial and Biaxial Crystals. Light Propagation in Uniaxial Crystal.

Practice-5 To determine the wavelength and velocity of ultrasonic waves in a liquid (Kerosene Oil, Xylene, etc.) by studying the diffraction through ultrasonic grating.

Module-V

Polarization of Electromagnetic waves

Description of Linear, Circular and Elliptical Polarization.Double Refraction. Polarization by Double Refraction. Nicol Prism. Ordinary & extraordinary refractive indices. Production & detection of Plane, Circularly and Elliptically Polarized Light. Phase Retardation Plates: Quarter-Wave and Half-Wave Plates.

practice-6 To verify the law of Malus for plane polarized light.

Practice-7 To analyze elliptically polarized Light by using a Babinet’s compensator.

Module-VI

Rotatory Polarization

Optical Rotation. Biot’s Laws for Rotatory Polarization. Fresnel’s Theory of optical rotation. Calculation of angle of rotation. Experimental verification of Fresnel’s theory. Specific rotation. Laurent’s half-shade polarimeter.

Practice-8 To study Polarization and double slit interference in microwaves.

Practice-9 To determine the specific rotation of sugar solution using Polarimeter.
Module-VII

Optical Fibres

Numerical Aperture. Step and Graded Indices (Definitions Only).
Single and Multiple Mode Fibres (Concept and Definition Only).

Practice-10 To verify the Stefan`s law of radiation and to determine Stefan’s constant.

Practice-11 To determine the Boltzmann constant using V-I characteristics of PN junction diode.

Practice-12 To study dependence of radiation on angle for a simple Dipole antenna.

Text Books:

Introduction to Electrodynamics, D.J. Griffiths, 3rd Ed., 1998, Benjamin Cummings.

Reference Books:

1. Electrodynamics by Satya Prakash

2. A textbook of Optics ,BrijlalSubramanyam

3. Elements of Electromagnetics, M.N.O. Sadiku, 2001, Oxford University Press.

4. Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory, T.L. Chow, 2006, Jones & Bartlett Learning

5. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics, M.A.W. Miah, 1982, Tata McGraw Hill

6. Electromagnetic field Theory, R.S. Kshetrimayun, 2012, Cengage Learning

7. Engineering Electromagnetic, Willian H. Hayt, 8th Edition, 2012, McGraw Hill.

8. Electromagnetic Field Theory for Engineers & Physicists, G. Lehner, 2010, Springer

## Session 5

Boundary Conditions at Interface between Different Media

https://youtu.be/Wphf74FS70M

https://www.slideshare.net/saiteja28941/2-slides-47689177

## Session 8

 Electromagnetic (EM) Energy Density. Physical Concept of Electromagnetic Field Energy Density https://youtu.be/ZCCc-qSiRDM https://youtu.be/GBlE8Pc-Os4 https://www.slideshare.net/patel999jay/ec5-em-1920 https://www2.ph.ed.ac.uk/~mevans/em/lec14.pdf

## Session 9

 Assignment/Flipped Class-2 Momentum Density and Angular Momentum Density https://youtu.be/f6cQWtyzBwQ https://youtu.be/A5s2lylG5XY https://www.slideshare.net/physicistshubhammaurya/physics-2961169

## Session 10

 Practice-1(2hrs) To study of reflection and refraction of microwaves https://youtu.be/iZ0RxKJuqa4

## Session 11

 Plane EM waves through vacuum, transverse nature of plane EM waves, refractive index and dielectric constant, wave impedance https://youtu.be/C5NOAf9dnxA https://youtu.be/XveQFylVdts https://slideplayer.com/slide/8658875/

## Session 12

 Plane EM waves through  isotropic dielectric medium,transverse nature of plane EM waves, refractive index and dielectric constant, wave impedance https://youtu.be/swNoKkY81MA https://youtu.be/1gZuY_xxbQs https://www.slideshare.net/niranjankumar47/electromagnetic-waves-65970456

## Session 13

 Assignment/Flipped Class-3 Propagation of electromagnetic waves through conducting media, relaxation time, skin depth https://youtu.be/5qXdUGUyOso https://youtu.be/kwkVCdE8DpA https://www.slideshare.net/suganthithangaraj1/electro-magnetic-waves-57444723

## Session 14

 Wave propagation through dilute plasma, electrical conductivity of ionized gases, plasma frequency, refractive index, skin depth, application to propagation through ionosphere https://youtu.be/DYlTIONUEQ8 https://youtu.be/1tK2-sfYj_M https://www.kth.se/social/files/56b9ccbdf276540704032616/Lec7-ED2210-PlasmaWaves_final.pdf

## Session 15

 Practice-2(2hrs) To determine the refractive index of liquid by total internal reflection using Wollaston’s air-film. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Collected_Physical_Papers/A_Simple_and_Accurate_Method_of_Determination_of_Index_of_Refraction_for_Light

## Session 16

 Assignment/flipped class-4 Boundary conditions at a plane interface between two media https://youtu.be/ylDqGlFmXb8 https://slideplayer.com/slide/4661886/

## Session 17

 Reflection & Refraction of plane waves at plane interface between two dielectric media-Laws of Reflection & Refraction https://youtu.be/_GuLwk-k4KQ https://www.slideshare.net/dineshraj007/plane-waves-reflection-refraction-and-polarization-by-dineshvraj

## Session 18

 Fresnel's Formulae for perpendicular polarization cases https://youtu.be/fB3upo0TM6k https://www.slideserve.com/gates/fresnels-equations-for-reflection-and-refraction-1318075

## Session 19

 Assignment/Flipped Class-5 Fresnel's Formulae for parallel polarization cases https://youtu.be/OgjZj60yt04 https://www.slideserve.com/gates/fresnels-equations-for-reflection-and-refraction-1318075

## Session 20

 Brewster's law. Reflection & Transmission coefficients.  https://youtu.be/PqXRrKHU74s https://www.slideshare.net/salmansmd/brewster-law

## Session 22

 Practice-3(2hrs) To determine the refractive Index of (1) glass and (2) a liquid by total internal reflection https://youtu.be/fvrvqm3Erzk

## Session 23

Practice-4(2hrs)

To study the polarization of light by reflection and determine the polarizing angle for air-glass interface.

https://youtu.be/ZlvAfXaG97E

## Session 24

 Propagation of E.M. Waves in Anisotropic Media. Symmetric  Nature of Dielectric Tensor. Fresnel’s Formula https://youtu.be/Hu4zjPIeDq8 https://user.eng.umd.edu/~davis/chapter18.pdf https://www.slideshare.net/MidoOoz/propagation-of-electromagnetic-waves-in-weak-anisotropic-medum

## Session 25

 Assignment/Flipped Class-6 Uniaxial and Biaxial Crystals. Light Propagation in Uniaxial Crystal https://youtu.be/FRAl9mYrLZw https://youtu.be/waS0MA4P3FM https://youtu.be/a9UkfP97bx8 https://youtu.be/f_a1H_gJncM https://www.slideshare.net/AnuroopAshok/polarization-of-light-birefringence-and-huygens-theory-of-double-refraction

## Session 26

 Practice-5(2hrs) To determine the wavelength and velocity of ultrasonic waves in a liquid (Kerosene Oil, Xylene, etc.) by studying the diffraction through ultrasonic grating. http://www.brainkart.com/article/Determination-of-Ultrasonic-Velocity-in-Liquid(Acoustical-Grating-Method)--Principle,-Construction-and-working_6874/

## Session 27

 Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves and Description of Linear, Circular and Elliptical Polarization https://youtu.be/8YkfEft4p-w https://www.slideshare.net/muhammaduraza52/polarization-52197981

## Session 29

 Assignment/Flipped Class-7 Polarization by Double Refraction https://youtu.be/iRwagObFrPM https://www.slideshare.net/AnuroopAshok/polarization-birefringence-and-huygens-theory-of-double-refraction

## Session 31

 Assignment/Flipped Class-8 Ordinary & extraordinary refractive indices https://youtu.be/2rXvAAMxqF0 https://www.slideshare.net/SwethaChandran2/birefringence-13

## Session 32

 Production of circularly and elliptically polarized light https://youtu.be/Q0qrU4nprB0 https://youtu.be/Fu-aYnRkUgg https://www.slideshare.net/muhammaduraza52/polarization-52197981

## Session 33

 Production of Plane Polarized Light https://youtu.be/dxJGm2QeX1g https://youtu.be/6_C8KyU67RU https://youtu.be/9In9E5fT__E https://www.slideshare.net/BikashSapkota/polarization-of-light

## Session 35

 Assignment/Flipped Class-9 Half-Wave Plates https://youtu.be/L8QpjpJKqjM https://www.slideshare.net/Priyamvada003/phase-retardation-plates

## Session 37

 Practice-6(2hrs) To verify the law of Malus for plane polarized light. http://www.iiserpune.ac.in/~bhasbapat/phy221_files/Malus%20Law%20Experiment.pdf

## Session 38

 Practice-7(2hrs)  To measure the sample birefringence by using a Babinet’s compensator https://www.holmarc.com/babinet_compensator.php#:~:text=Using%20Babinet%20compensator%2C%20ordinary%20and,the%20fringe%20pattern%20is%20produced.

## Session 40

 Assignment/Flipped Class-10 Biot’s  Laws for Rotatory Polarization https://youtu.be/jzdYqLO9OY8 https://www.slideshare.net/prathameshkudalkar7/polarimetric-estimation-of-sugars

## Session 41

 Fresnel’s Theory of optical rotation https://youtu.be/VZ_DAtBheqY https://www.slideshare.net/mdfiaz/optical-rotatory-dispersion-44837028

## Session 42

 Assignment/Flipped Class-11 verification of Fresnel’s theory https://youtu.be/VZ_DAtBheqY https://www.slideshare.net/mdfiaz/optical-rotatory-dispersion-44837028

## Session 46

 Practice-8(2hrs) To study Polarization and double slit interference in microwaves. https://youtu.be/P03lz9VM42U

## Session 47

 Practice-9(2hrs) To determine the specific rotation of sugar solution using Polarimeter. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=McGd-0kaTxs

## Session 48

 Assignment/Flipped Class-12 Optical Fibres https://youtu.be/0MwMkBET_5I https://youtu.be/jZOg39v73c4 https://www.slideshare.net/RamSinghPatel/ppt-on-optical-fiber

## Session 51

 Single and Multiple Mode Fibres (Concept and Definition Only) https://youtu.be/-D6CkULcU24 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KW3HSJthFws https://www.slideshare.net/doranegoda/multimode-fiber-71486404

## Session 52

 Practice-10(2hrs) To verify the Stefan`s law of radiation and to determine Stefan’s constant. https://youtu.be/1S9T0PgcNkU

## Session 53

 Practice-11(2hrs) To determine the Boltzmann constant using V-I characteristics of PN junction diode. https://youtu.be/4Vv2IEVvMC8

## Session 54

 Practice-12(2hrs) To study dependence of radiation on angle for a simple Dipole antenna. https://youtu.be/qp55L9FczVU

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