Dr. P. Datta Sai MPT Neurology


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Subject Name: Electrotherapy I


Type of course T-P-Pj Theory+ Practice 3-3-0


  • Recall the physics principles & Laws of Electricity, Electromagnetic spectrum, & ultra sound.
  • Describe effects of environmental & man made electromagnetic field at the cellular level & risk factors on prolonged exposure.
  • Describe the Main electrical supply, Electric shock, precautions.
  • Enumerate Types & Production of various Therapeutic electrical currents & describe the panel diagrams of the machines

Learning Outcomes

  • Know the indications and contra indications of various types of electrotherapeutic currents
  • Demonstrate of knowledge on application of electrotherapy on nerve lesions, facilitation of muscle contraction and pain relief by low frequency currents.
  • Understand physiology of electrical stimulation on excitable tissue principles, techniques and effects of electrotherapy as a therapeutic modality in the  restoration of physical function

Module I:

Physical Principles: Structure and properties of matter solids, liquids and gases, adhesion, surface tension, viscosity, density and elasticity. Structure of atom, molecules, elements and compounds. Election theory,  static  and  current   electricity.   Conductors,   Insulators,   Potential   Difference, Resistance and Intensity Ohms Law,  Joules law. Its application to AC & DC currents : a)Rectifying Devices Thermionic valves, Semiconductors, Transistors, Amplifiers, Transducers Oscillator circuits, b)Capacitance, condensers in DC and AC circuit, c)Display devices &  indicators analogue & digital. Effects of Current Electricity: 1.Chemical effects- Ions and electrolytes, Ionization, Production of a E.M.F by chemical action. 2. Magnetic   effects, Molecular theory of magnetism,       Magnetic fields, Electromagnetic Induction.  3. Milli ammeter and Voltmeter, Transformers and choke coil Thermal Effects production. 4. Electromagnetic spectrum biophysical application 5.Electrical supply: - a)Brief outline of main supply of electric current b)Dangers short circuits, electric shocks c)Precautions safety devices, earthing, fuses etc. d)First aid & initial management of electric shock.

Module II

Low frequency Currents: 1.Introduction to direct, alternating &modified currents, 2.Production of direct current Physiological and therapeutic effects of constant current anodal and cathode Galvanism, Ionization and their application in various conditions, 3. Iontophoresis Principles of clinical application, indication, contraindication, precaution, operational skills of equipment  & patient preparation, 4. Modified direct current  various pulses, duration and frequency and their   effect on Nerve and Muscle tissue. Production of interrupted and surged current and their effects, 5. Modified direct current- Physiological and therapeutic effects, principles of clinical application, indications, contra indications, precautions, operational skills of equipment& patient preparation, 6.Transautaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulations(TENS):- a)Types of Low Frequency pulse widths, frequency & intensities used as TENS applications.  b)Theories of pain relief by TENS,  c)Principle of clinical application, effects & users, indicators, contraindications, precautions, operational  skills  of equipment and patient preparation.


Module III

Electrical Reactions and Electro-diagnostic tests: Electrical Stimuli and normal behavior of Nerve  and muscle tissues’, S.D  Curve and its application Chronaxie, Rheobase &pulse ratio 1.Infra-red rays- Wavelength, frequency, types & sources of IRR generation, techniques of irradiation, physiological  & therapeutic effects, indications, contraindications, precautions, operational skills of equipment 7patient preparation. 2. Ultra- violet rays (UVR): a) Wavelength, frequency,  types  & sources of  UVR generation , techniques of irradiation , physiological & therapeutic effects, indications. Contraindications, precautions, operational skills of equipment & patient preparation. b)  Dosimetry of UVR.


Module IV

Superficial heat Paraffin wax bath, moist heat, electrical heating pads a) Mechanism of production. b) Mode of heat transfer. c) Physiological & therapeutic effects. d) Indications, contraindications, precautions, operational skills of equipment & patient preparation.

Session Plan:


Session 1: Physics and Physical Properties of Atom, Molecules with respect to all the matters.

Video: https://byjus.com/chemistry/matter-solid-liquid-gas/

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/MahewashPathan/states-of-matter-237322166?qid=251a62f0-c12f-495a-bf54-fd0a521e3c82&v=&b=&from_search=9



Session 2: electricity, types of electricity, insulator, conductors.

Video: https://byjus.com/physics/electric-current/

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/alfonsodios/static-and-current-electricity


Session 3: Laws of Electricity: Ohms, Electric circuit.

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/OhMiss/circuits-6426415


Session 4: effects of current electricity and its biophysical characters

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/YogitaGupta34/electric-current-and-it-effect


Session 5: Electromagnetic Field and its effects


Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/shawanroy/electromagnetic-field-emf?qid=e299add4-01e9-4f2f-a0dc-32a612e73160&v=&b=&from_search=4


Session 6: Electromotive force and its effect

Video: https://byjus.com/physics/electromotive-force/

Presentation: https://byjus.com/physics/electromotive-force/


Session 7: Electromagnetic Induction

Video:https://www.toppr.com/guides/physics/magnetic-effects-of-electric current/electromagnetic-induction-and-its-applications/




Session 8: Transformers and its application

Video: https://byjus.com/jee/transformer/

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/AbhijitJadhav9/transformers-69559748


Session 9: Electrical Safety measures

Video: https://slideplayer.com/slide/10464577/

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/shijilkv/electrical-safety-49060891


Session 10: Electromagentic Spectrum, Different Spectrals and its uses

Presesntation: https://byjus.com/jee/electromagnetic-spectrum-and-electromagnetic-waves/#:~:text=The%20electromagnetic%20spectrum%20is%20a,the%20spectrum%20of%20electromagnetic%20waves.


Session 11: Low Frequency Currents, Production and its uses

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/AvanianbanChakkarapani/low-frequency-therapeutic-currents


 Session 12: Production, Uses and Effects of Direct Current( Galvanic Current)

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/AvanianbanChakkarapani/galvanic-current


Session 13: Production, Uses and Effects of Direct Current ( Faradic Current)

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/AvanianbanChakkarapani/faradic-current


Session 14: Principles, method and uses of Iontophoresis

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/SanaRoohi1/iontophoresis-ppt-85802559?qid=93164682-668f-4baa-9134-3cd380bd38c7&v=&b=&from_search=12


Session 15: Application of Iontophoresis in Hyperhydrosis

Video: https://hyperhidrosisuk.org/treatment-options/iontophoresis/

Presentation:  https://www.slideshare.net/drrajatsachdeva/hyperhidrosis-148739993


Session 16: Application of Iontophoresis in Arthritis

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7CvU0oyfWnU

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/senphysio/iontophorosis-for-physiotherapist-iontophorosis-iontransfer


Session 17: Physiology of Pain

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQLFfvGM7nI

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/vajira54/y2-s1-pain-physiology-2018?qid=d1ef11ba-d391-4910-ab78-dd842046764e&v=&b=&from_search=10


Session 18: Theories of Pain and gate control of Pain

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/medicovibes/1-pain-pathwaysispnkaminenidrpadmaja-durga?qid=fede906e-0c4e-424a-b235-6bad9043ab93&v=&b=&from_search=7


Session 19: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/saurabsharma/lecture-3-tens-2015


Session 20: Operations of TENS and patient preparation

Vide: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MSByYmD9YVM


Session 21: Application of TENS to common conditions

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2kXH2edHXk


Session 22: Electrodiagnostic test, Rheobase, Chronaxie

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhiOHOh-wS0

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/sanyalkumar/s-d-curve


Session 23: IRR, therapeutic effects, uses and contraindication

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/nithinnair11/infrared-radiation-65732036


Session 24: UVR, therapeutic effects, uses and contraindication

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/sreerajsr/uvr-31444111


Session 25: Calculation of UVR dose, PUVA

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/sreerajsr/uvr-31444111

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHTwLVO7OrE


Session 26: Therapeutic effect of Superficial Heating modalities, Paraffin Wax bath and Moist Heat, Electronic Heat Packs

Presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/sreerajsr/physiologic-and-therapeutic-effects-of-heat


Session 27: Application of IRR to skin conditions

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lvRsU-X6_3w

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