V. Pravallika


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Course Name: Forensic Science-I


Course code (Credits): CUTM2289 (3-2-0)

Learning Objectives:
After studying this paper, the students will know,

  1. The basics of forensic science, the history and development of forensic science and functions of different officers.
  2. The organizational set up of forensic science laboratory, national and international perspective of forensic science
  3. The detail about crime, criminal, criminology, criminal behaviour and ethical issues in forensic science.
  4. How to process the crime scene and the duties of police and forensic expert involved in investigation.
  5. The basics of crime scene management and its types and methods to access the crime scene.
  6. How to reconstruct the crime scene and its forensic significance in crime solving.
  7. The procedure of investigative report writing and its legal importance.

Learning Outcomes

  1. To describe the fundamental principles, development and functions of
    forensic science along with its significance in the human society
  2. To illustrate the organizational setup in a forensic science laboratory and its functional aspects.
  3. To understand the working of the forensic establishments in India andabroad


MODULE I: Basics and History of Forensic Science


Basic of forensic science: Introduction, Definition, need, signification and scope of Forensic
Science. Principles of Forensic Science. Domains in Forensic Science: Forensic Biology, Forensic
Medicine, Forensic Toxicology, Forensic Osteology and Odontology, Forensic Physics, Forensic
Photography, Ballistics, Fingerprint, Questioned Documents, Forensic Psychology, Forensic
Anthropology, Wild life Forensic, DNA profiling, Computer Forensic etc.,
History and development of forensic science- Specific contribution of scientists in the field of
Forensic Science. Development of Forensic Science in India. National and international scenario of
teaching and research institution in Forensic Science.
Functions of :Forensic Scientist, Police officers, Prosecution, Judicial Officers and Medico legal
expert etc. Problem of proof in Forensic Science, corpus dilecti, modus operandi.

Practical-1. To prepare a case study of famous criminal cases in India.
Practical-2. To study the types, causes and rate of crime in India.

MODULE II: National and International Perspective of Forensic Science and Organizational set up of FSL


Organization set up of forensic science laboratory: Structure and function of State and regional
Forensic Science Laboratory, Central Forensic Science Laboratory and facility provided, Mobile
Forensic Science Laboratory. Directorate of Forensic Science Service. Police and Forensic scientist
relationship, role of FSL in criminal investigation, relationship between forensic expert and judiciary
officer, Importance of FSL, National and International scenario of FSL, facilities provided in forensic
science laboratory. Ethical issues in FSL.
National perspective of forensic science: Central and Divisional Fingerprint Bureaus, National Crime Records Bureau, Police & Detective
Training Schools, Bureau of Police Research & Development, Police Academies, Police dogs.
International perspectives of forensic science: INTERPOL, FBI, CIA, CSI, Ameripol, Europol,
Frontex etc.

MODULE III: Crime, Criminal behavior and Ethical issues in forensic science

Crime: Definition of crime, history and development, Victimology, criminological perspective,
characteristics of crime, classification of crimes: atrocity, seriousness, motive, statistical, situational
& systematic. White collar crime, professional crime, organized crime, present scenario of crime in
Criminal and Criminology: Definition of criminal, classification of criminals. Definition of
criminology, growth of criminology in India, conservative criminology, liberal criminology, radial
Criminal behavior: Introduction of criminal behavior, theories of criminal behavior: classical and
non-classical theories, biological theories, physiological theories, psychogenic theory, economic
theory, geographical theories, and sociological theories.
Ethical issues in forensic science: Definition of ethics, professional standards for practice of
Criminalistics, sanction against expert for unethical conduct.

MODULE IV: Crime Scene Investigation

Steps of CSI- Self-protection, Medical Assessment, Secure the crime scene, Search for evidence,
Crime Scene Documentation (Note taking, Photography, Sketching and Videography),
Collection of Physical Evidence, Preservation of Physical Evidence, Packaging of Physical
Evidence, Sealing and Labelling of Physical Evidence, Chain of custody. Role of first
responding officer, Coordination between police personnel and forensic scientists at crime
scenes. The evaluation of 5Ws -who? what?, when?, where?, why? and 1H -how?

Practical-3. To search the physical evidences by different searching method.
Practical-4. To collect and preserve the evidences recovered from crime scene.

MODULE V: Crime Scene Management

Components of Crime Scene Management- Information management, manpower management,
technology management & logistics management, Types of crime scenes- Macroscopic,
Microscopic, Indoor and Outdoor. Role of crime scene managers, educational background &
hierarchy of forensic expert. Crime scene security, contamination control, documentation
protocols and maintaining health & safety procedures.

Practical-5. To record the crime scene by photography method of crime scene documentation.
Practical-6. To record the crime scene by Sketching method of crime scene documentation.
Practical-7. To record the crime scene by note making method of crime scene documentation.
Practical-8. To record the crime scene by videography method of crime scene documentation.

MODULE VI: Crime Scene Reconstruction

Defining crime scene reconstruction, nature & importance of crime scene reconstruction, basic
principles of physical evidence and crime scene reconstruction, stages of crime scene
reconstruction, types of crime scene reconstruction- (Specific Type of Incident/Crime
Reconstruction, Specific Events Reconstruction, Degree of Involvement Reconstruction and
Specific Type of Physical Evidence Reconstruction), Crime Scene Staging, Sequence of events
recording, Documentation required for Crime scene reconstruction, Computerized
Reconstruction (Faro).


Practical-9. To study the simulation of crime (Shooting and Rape) and its investigation.

Practical-10. To study the reconstruction of blood spatter pattern.
Practical-11. To study the reconstruction of glass fracture evidence.
Practical-12. To study the reconstruction of shooting crime scene.

MODULE VII: Report Writing

Introduction, Expert report, General guidelines, Importance of report, Nature of report, Types of
report, Report format, Length of report, Common reporting mistakes, Tips to Keep in Mind
When Writing an Expert Report, Do’s and Don’ts while preparing forensic report, Legal
challenges, Legal considerations of report: Sec 45 of IEA, Sec 293 of Cr.PC.

Practical-13. To prepare a forensic report on crime scene investigation

Session Planning

Session 1

Basics of forensic science:

History and development of forensic science:

Session 2

Principles of forensic science:

Specific contribution of scientists:

Session 3

Organizational set up of Forensic Science Laboratories:

Session 4

Role of FSL in Criminal Investigation:

Session 5

National Perspective of forensic science:

Session 6

International perspective of forensic science:

Session 7

History and Development of Crime:

Session 8

Classification of crimes:

Session 9

Classification of criminals and criminal behavior:

Session 10

Crime Scene Investigation:

Session 11

Crime Scene Documentation:

Session 12

Role of First Responding Officer:

Session 13

Crime Scene Management:

Session 14

Types of Crime Scenes:

Session 15

Documentation protocols:

Session 16

Crime Scene Reconstruction:

Session 17

Types of Crime Scene Reconstruction:

Session 18

Importance of Report writing and its Nature:

Session 19

Types of Reports and Legal Consideration of Reports:


1. Henry Lee’s Crime Scene Handbook: Henry C Lee
2. Forensic Biology: Shrikant H. Lade
3. Crime Scene Processing and Laboratory Work Book: Patric Jones
4. Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques 3rd ed.: Stuart H. James
5. Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9th edition.: Richard Saferstein
6. Computer Crime and Computer Forensic: Dr. R.K. Tiwari
7. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to a Behavioral Evidence Analysis, 3rd edition.: Brent E. Turvey
8. Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trial, 4th edition.: B.R. Sharma
9. Handbook of Forensic Psychology: Dr. Veer raghavan crime scene, sketching of crime scene, searching,
collection, preservation, packing of physical evidence, documentation of crime scene, forwarding or dispatch of
exhibit in to the laboratory, chain of custody, collection of standard/reference samples.
10. Crime Scene Management with Special Emphasis on National level Crime Cases: Dr. Rukmani Krishnamurthy
under publishing
11. Text Book of Medical Jurisprudence, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology: Parikh C.K.
12. The Identification of Firearms and Forensic ballistics: Barrard and Gerald
13. M. Byrd, Crime Scene Evidence: A Guide to the Recovery and Collection of Physical Evidence, CRC Press,
Boca Raton (2001).
14. Richard Saferstein: Forensic science from the crime scene to the crime lab.
15. S.H. James and J.J. Nordby, Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques,
2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton (2005).
16. W.J. Tilstone, M.L. Hastrup and C. Hald, Fisher’s, Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation, CRC Press,
Boca Raton (2013)

Our Main Teachers

V. Pravallika

Assistant Professor

Assistant Professor, Department of Forensic Science, School of Paramedical and Allied Health Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Vizianagaram