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Normally frozen fish will be stored in cold store where the temperature is maintained at -18°C. During storage due to various factors frozen fish undergo physical & chemical changes. Quality changes during storage, its preservative methods are explained cleanly storage condition is very important for best quality sea food. Therefore, the correct layout of cold store with all factors, mobile store (containers) was also described. Packaging of food is important in maintaining the wholesomeness of the product. Various types of packaging materials and their requirements were elaborated. To export the sea food it is essential to register the processing unit to European Union under their law. Therefore every approved unit must have a HACCP plan for that particular firm. Before preparing a plan one must know the classification of physical, chemical and biological hazards including Bio-toxin. All the above hazards are discussed in detail. Extension of shelf life by vacuum packing & Modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) were also documented. By undergoing this course one must learns the preservation technique by freezing and how to main the hygienic condition of the fish and export formalities, rules and regulations of importing countries. To consume the fish as similar to fresh fish, it has to be subjected to freezing process. Different methods of freezing fish, equipments used, refrigeration load and refrigerants used are discussed with illustration in detail. Before consuming, frozen fish has to be thawed to obtain fish in normal form. Various methods of thawing including latest techniques are described.
Introduction to freezing technology; characteristics of fish and shellfish; changes in fish after death, spoilage of fish, spoilage and pathogenic microorganism. Handling of fresh fish; sanitation in processing plants. Principles of low temperature preservations. Chilling of fish – methods and equipment for chilling; icing – quality of ice, ice making; refrigerated or chilled sea water, chilling rate; spoilage of fish during chilled storage; use of antibiotics and chemicals. Freezing of fish fundamental aspects; heat units; freezing point depression, eutectic point; freezing rate; methods of freezing, freeze drying, physico– chemical changes that occur during freezing, mechanism of ice crystal formation; preparation of fish for freezing. Changes that occur during frozen storage – microbiological, physical and chemical changes, protein denaturation, fat oxidation, dehydration, drip; protective treatments – polyphosphate, glazing, antioxidants, packaging; thawing of frozen fish – methods of thawing. Transportation of frozen fish, cold chain, quality control, HACCP in freezing industry.
Sanitation and plant housekeeping; chilling and freezing equipment, instruments; packages and product styles; methods of icing fish; cooling rate; preservation by chilled sea water; freezing and thawing curves; freezing of different varieties of fish and shellfish; estimation of drip; determination of quality changes during frozen storage; inspection of frozen fishery products; visits to ice plants, cold storages and freezing plants.
1. Post-Harvest technology of fish and fish products ---- K.K. Balachandran
2. Fish Products and bi-products ---- K.C.Dora & R.N.Mishra
Chilling of fish – methods and equipment for chilling; icing – quality of ice, ice making; refrigerated or chilled sea water, chilling rate; spoilage of fish during chilled storage; use of antibiotics and chemicals.