Fundamentals of Genetics


Dr. Praveen Kumar


Core Courses

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Code(Credit) : ASPG1101(2-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • To impart knowledge to the students on the ultrastructure of cell and cell organelles, principles of genetics and their applications in plant breeding for improving agricultural productivity

Learning Outcomes

  • • Understand the basic concepts of the ultrastructure of cell, cell organelles, chromosomes and nucleic acids.
    • Apply the principles of inheritance to plant breeding
    • Acquaint with the fundamentals of chromosomal and cytoplasmic inheritance
    • Sex determination, mutations, chromosomal aberrations and Gene concept: Gene structure, function and regulation

Course Syllabus

Pre and Post Mendelian concepts of heredity, Mendelian principles of heredity, Cell division – mitosis, meiosis, Probability and Chi-square.Dominance relationships, gene interaction.
Multiple alleles, pleiotropism and pseudoalleles, Sex determination and sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced traits, Blood group genetics, Linkage and its estimation, crossing over mechanisms, chromosome mapping. Structural changes in chromosome, Mutation, classification, Methods of inducing mutation & CIB technique, mutagenic agents and induction of mutation. Qualitative & Quantitative traits, Polygenes and continuous variations, multiple factor hypothesis, Epistatic interactions with examples. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Genetic disorders,.Nature, structure & replication of genetic material. Protein synthesis, Transcription and translational mechanism of genetic material, Gene concept: Gene structure, function and regulation, Lac and Trp operons.
Study of microscope.Study of cell structure. Experiments on monohybrid, dihybrid, trihybrid, test cross and back cross, Experiments on epistatic interactions including test cross and back cross, Practice on mitotic and meiotic cell division, Experiments on probability and Chi-square test. Determination of linkage and cross over analysis (through two point test cross and three point test cross data).Study on sex linked inheritance in Drosophila. Study of models on DNA and RNA structure.


1. Pundhan Singh, 2006, Genetics, Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana
2. Singh, B.D. 2015. Fundamentals of Genetics.Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana
3. Gupta, P.K.2007. Genetics.Rastogi Publications, Meerut

Session Plan

Session 1

Pre and Post Mendelian concepts of heredity

1. Pre & Post Mendelian

L 1

Practice 1

Study of microscope

Session 2

Mendelian principles of heredity

2. Mendelian principal of heredity

L 2

Practice 2

Monohybrid, dihybrid,trihybrid,test cross & back cross

Session 3

Cell division: mitosis & meiosis

3. CD Mitosis

L 3

Practice 3

Study of cell structure

Session 4

Probability and Chi-square & Dominance relationships
4. X2 Probability and dominance relationship

L 4

Practice 4

Probability and Chi-square test

Session 5

Gene interactions

5.gene interaction

L 5

Practice 5

Experiment on epistatic interactions

Session 6

Multiple allele, Pleiotropism and Pseudoallele
6. multiple alle

L 6

Session 7

Sex determination, sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced traits
7 sex deter
L 7

Practice 6

Study on sex linked inheritance in Drosophila

Session 8

Blood group, Linkage and its estimation
8. blood group genetics
L 8

Session 9

Crossing over mechanisms and chromosome mapping
9. CO mechanism
L 9

Practice 7

Determination of linkage & Cross over analysis

Session 10

Structural changes in chromosome
10. Strctrl change in chromosome
L 10

Session 11

Mutation & its classification
11 Mutation and classification
L 11

Session 12

Mutagenic agents and induction of mutation
12 Mutagene
L 12 -

Session 13

Qualitative & Quantitative traits & Multiple factor hypothesis
13 qualitative and quant
L 13

Session 14

Cytoplasmic inheritance
14. Cytoplasmic inheritence
L 14

Practice 8

Mitotic division

Session 15

Genetic disorders
L 15

Session 16

Nature, structure of genetic material
16 Nature & Structure of DNA
L 16

Session 17

Replication of genetic material
17 Replication of DNA
L 17

Practice 9

Meiotic division

Session 18

Transcription of genetic material
L 18

Practice 10

Study of models on DNA and RNA structure

Session 19

Translational mechanism of genetic material and Protein synthesis
19 Translation
L 19

Session 20

Gene concept: Gene structure, function and regulation, Lac and Trp operan
20.Gene concept
L 20

Our Main Teachers

Dr. Praveen Kumar

Assistant Professor