Geometrical Optics

Teacher

Dr K Venkata Prasad

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Geometrical Optics

Code(Credit) : ABC01(3-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • To study of light and its behavior as it propagates in a variety of media.
  • To understand the phenomena of reflection and refraction of light at boundaries between media and subsequent image formation will be dealt with in detail.
  • To study the reflections at plane and spherical surfaces and refractions at plane, spherical, cylindrical and toric surfaces.
  • To Attention will be given to the system of surfaces and/or lenses and their imaging properties.
  • To study the effect of aperture stops on the quality of images, such as blur, aberrations, depth of field and depth of focus.

Learning Outcomes

  • The objective of this course is to equip the students with a thorough knowledge of mirrors and lenses. At the end of this course, students will be able to predict the basic properties of the images formed on the retina by the optics of the eye.

Course Syllabus

Module 1 (5 Hours)

Nature of light –light as electromagnetic oscillation; ideas of sinusoidal oscillations; amplitude and phase; speed of light in vacuum and other media; refractive index.   Wavefronts–spherical, elliptical and plane; Curvature and vergence; rays; convergence and divergence in terms of rays and vergence; vergence at a distance.  Refractive index; its dependence on wavelength.

Module 2 (6 Hours)

Fermat’s and Huygen’s Principle –Derivation of laws of reflection and refraction (Snell’s law) from these principles. Plane mirrors –height of the mirror; rotation of the mirror.  Reflection by a spherical mirror –paraxial approximation; sign convention; derivation of vergence equation. Imaging by concave mirror, convex mirror.  .

Module 3 (5 Hours)

Reflectivity; transmissivity; Snell’s Law, Refraction at a plane surface. Glass slab; displacement without deviation; displacement without dispersion. Thick prisms; angle of prism; deviation produced by a prism; refractive index of the prism.  Prisms; angular dispersion; dispersive power; Abbe’s number.

Module 4 (4 Hours)

Definition of crown and flint glasses; materials of high refractive index. Thin prism –definition; definition of Prism diopter; deviation produced by a thin prism; it dependence on refractive index.

Module 5 (6 Hours)

Nodal Planes.  Sag formula.  Paraxial approximation; derivation of vergence equation.  Imaging by a positive powered surface and negative powered surface. Refraction by a spherical surface; sign convention; introduction to spherical aberration using image formed by a spherical surface of a distance object

Module 6 (6 Hours)

Thin lens as a special case of thick lens; review of sign convention.  Imaging by a thin convex lens; image properties (real/virtual; erect/inverted; magnified/minified) for various object positions.  Imaging by a thin concave lens; image properties (real/virtual; erect/inverted; magnified/minified) for various object positions.

Module 7 (4 Hours)

Prentice’s Rule.  System of two thin lenses; review of front and back vertex powers and equivalent power, review of six cardinal points.  System of more than two thin lenses; calculation of equivalent power using magnification formula

TEXT BOOK:

  1. Subrahmanyan N, BrijLal, A text book of Optics, S. Chand Co Ltd, New Delhi, India, 2003.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  1. Pedrotti L. S, Pedrotti Sr. F. L, Optics and Vision, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1998.
  2. Keating NM. P, Geometric, Physical and Visual Optics, Butterworth- Heinemann, Massachusetts, USA, 2002.

Session 5

Refractive index; its dependence on wavelength.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eX4JqYHjthE

Session 6

Fermat’s and Huygen’s Principle –Derivation of laws of reflection and refraction (Snell’s law) from these principles.

https://www.slideshare.net/franceschongg/huygens-principle-45865554?qid=0f927656-90a9-43c0-810a-f705c29a8618&v=&b=&from_search=2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bItZbUxrgww

Session 10

Derivation of vergence equation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4W8O1-tqXG8

Session 16

Session 17

Session 18

Thin prism –definition; definition of Prism diopter;

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JGqLC0OifY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0rAsmUHw0Y

Session 19

Deviation produced by a thin prism; it dependence on refractive index

https://www.slideshare.net/bipinkoirala3/real-prism-use-in-ophthalmology?qid=858dc4bc-8072-4e63-a825-33c70cccdc25&v=&b=&from_search=6

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zx07PShjJmk

Practice 2: Thin Prism – measurement of deviation; calculation of the prism diopter

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0rAsmUHw0Y

Session 26

Review of sign convention of lense

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4XXraQdZlDc

Session 28

Image properties (real/virtual; erect/inverted; magnified/minified) for various object positions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlF0sByEGN0

Session 29

Imaging by a thin concave lens

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03kej-wnXcY

Session 30

Image properties (real/virtual; erect/inverted; magnified/minified) for various object positions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1W38cSKb3tw

Practice 4: Construction of a tabletop telescope – all three types of telescopes

https://www.slideshare.net/AqilahRajak/modern-telescope-5ws-1h?qid=78f03b4a-1d64-4146-b3c2-2d9d488b39c1&v=&b=&from_search=16

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=goL3K_xQzbE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_v1RWyzQAng

Practice 5: Construction of a tabletop microscope

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNnX_mJHKl0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b2PCJ5s-iyk

Session 31

Session 32

System of two thin lenses, review of front and back vertex powers and equivalent power.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxwLZUfrAk4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYmVOkT4qIU

Session 34

System of more than two thin lenses; calculation of equivalent power using magnification formula

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rogb1mLl7EU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPomGcZ3_kk

Practice 6: Imaging by a cylindrical lens

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XS-dnPq5u_I

Practice 7: Imaging by two cylinders in contact

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oNVxyIk91y4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZjnpJDx7C4

Practice 8: Imaging by a spherocylindrical lens

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoSYfdbCEHE

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       I am working as Assoc. Prof in the Department of Physics. I obtained M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph.D in Physics from Andhra University. I published number of papers. My specialization is Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy and also interested in computational methods and material science.