Dr Sitaram Swain


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Course Name : Microbiology

Code(Credit) :CUTM1704(3-1-2)

Course Objectives

  • • To know various Culture media and their applications and also understand various methods of sterilization.
    • To know the various Physical and Chemical growth requirements of microbes and get equipped with various methods of microbes culture techniques and their role in various industry.

Learning Outcomes

  • Students will acquire knowledge to identify different microbes and to perform bacterial cultures in different media. They will get acquainted with routine microbiological practices including sterilization, media preparation, maintenance of microbial culture, staining etc. They will acquire expertise to culture and screen microbes for antibiotic resistance.

Course Syllabus

Module:I Morphology and structure of bacteria, gram positive and gram negative organisms. Microscopy (Bright field, Dark field, Phase contrast and Fluorescence microscopy), sterilization, nutritional requirements and growth characteristics of bacteria, media for growing bacteria and fungi. Staining of micro-organisms – principle and procedure of gram stain and acid fast stain.
Module:II Microbial nutrition: Growth of micro-organisms, measurement of growth, factors influencing growth – Nutrition, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and oxygen. Batch and continuous culture. Growth curve, phases of growth curve. Synchronous growth.
Module:III Bacterial toxins – Classification, structure and mode of action of bacterial protein toxins.
Module:IV Industrial microbiology: Production and importance – Alchoholic beverages (Beer and wine), fermented products of milk cheese, antibiotic production – penicillin, single cell protein – Spirulina. Fermentors – types and components.
Module:V Antibiotics: Definition, mechanism of action of penicillin streptomycin, and chloramphenicol, antibiotic resistance in brief.
Module:VI Viruses: Classification based on genetic material with examples.Plant viruses – TMV,morphology, general characteristics and its replication.
Module:VII Bacteriophages: Morphology, general characteristics, life cycle (lysogeny and lytic cycle) of T-even bacteriophage.
Practical content :
• Preparation and sterilization of culture media
• To perform culture transfer techniques: Solid to solid (streaking), liquid to solid (spreading), liquid to liquid, solid to liquid and determineCFU/ml
• To stain bacteria using methyleneblue.
• To perform gram staining
• Isolation of microbes from soil and sewage water.
• To prepare temporary mount of algae(Spirogyra)
• To prepare temporary mount of fungi(Penicillium)
• Study of different shapes of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa using permanent slides
• To prepare growth curve of bacteria.
Text Books:
• Prescott, L. M., Harley, J. P. and Klen, D. A. (1999). Microbiology, 7th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
• Pelczar, Jr., M. J., Chan E.C.S. and Krieg, N. R. (2005). Microbiology, 5th Ed, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.
• Alexopoulus, C. J., Mims, C. W. and Blackwel, M. (1996). Introductory Mycology, John Wiley, New York.
• Kumar, H. D. (1988). Introductory Phycology. East-West Press, New Delhi.
• Maloy, S. R., Cronan, J. E. Jr. and Freifielder, D. (2008). Microbial Genetics, 2nd Ed. Norosa, New Delhi.
Reference Books
• Mehrotra, R. S. and Aneja, R. S. (1998). An Introduction to Mycology, New Age International, New Delhi
• Agrios, G. N. (2005). Plant Pathology, 5th Ed, Elsevier Academic press, USA

Session Plan

Session 1

Session 2

gram positive and gram negative organisms

Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria

Morphology of bacteria

Session 3

Working Principle of microscope

Principle and operation of compound microscope

Session 4

Microscopy (Bright field, Dark field, Phase contrast and Fluorescence microscopy)

Different types of microscope


Session 5



Session 6

Nutritional requirements and growth characteristics of bacteria

Microbial nutrition and growth

Session 7

Media for growing bacteria and fungi

Culture media

Session 8

Staining of microorganisms-Principle and procedure

Acid Fast stain

Gram staining

Session 9

Microbial nutrition: Growth of micro-organism

Microbial nutrition and growth

Session 11

Factors influencing growth – Nutrition, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and oxygen

Factors affecting microbial growth

Session 12

Batch and continuous culture

Continous and batch culture

Session 13

Growth curve, phases of growth curve

Microbial growth

Growth curve

Session 14

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

Dr Sitaram Swain

Assistant Professor

Dr Sitaram Swain has received PhD degree from Utkal University in the year 2017. He is also trained and experienced from TATA Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India. He has experienced with cell line culture, clinical biochemistry, immuno-fixation, immunoassay, cancer cytogenetic, serum protein electrophoresis and tumour marker analysis. He has qualified NET(ICAR-ASRB) in Animal biotechnology. He has […]