Microbiology of Fluid Milk

Teacher

Dr. Prasanta Kumar Choudhury

Category

Core Courses

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Course Name : Microbiology of Fluid MIlk

Code (Credit) : CUTM1148 (2-1-0)

Course Objectives

  • To understand the specific group of microorganisms associated with raw milk
  • To acquaint the students about the types of spoilage and public health aspects of fluid milk.
  • To provide in depth knowledge on clean milk production and management strategies.

Learning Outcomes

  • Able to estimate microbial quality and microbial load in raw milk.
  • Determine the mastitic milk from raw milk.
  • Demonstrate the sources of contamination of raw milk.

Course Syllabus

Module-I: Microbes associated with raw milk (4 hrs)

  • Significance of specific groups of microorganisms in milk i.e. psychrotrophic, mesophilic, thermoduric and thermophillic bacteria - their morphological and biochemical characteristics and classification (2 hrs).
  • Microbial contaminants in raw milk, their sources during various stages of production - milking, chilling, storage and transportation with special reference to psychrotrophic microorganisms (1 hr).
  • Microbiological changes in bulk refrigerated raw milk (1 hr).

Practice (4 hrs)

  • Morphological examination of common dairy microorganisms (size and shape, arrangement and sporulation) (1 hr).
  • Enumeration of psychrotrophic, thermophillic, thermoduric and spore forming bacteria in raw and market milk (1 hr).
  • Estimation of microbial load in raw milk by standard plate count (SPC) and dye reduction tests (MBRT, RRT) (2 hr).

Module-II: Sources of contamination and microbial spoilage of raw milk (4 hrs)

  • Sources of contamination and microbial spoilage of raw milk (1 hr).
  • Types of microbial spoilage - souring, curdling, bitty cream, proteolysis, lipolysis, abnormal flavors and discolouration (2 hrs).
  • Mastitis milk - types of mastitis, causative micro-flora of mastitis, compositional and microbiological changes during mastitis infection, their processing and public health (1 hr).

Practice (4 hrs)

  • Spoilage of milk caused by microorganisms: souring, sweet curdling, gassiness, lipolysis, ropiness, proteolysis and discolouration (2 hrs).
  • Detection of mastitis milks: pH, SLST, somatic cell count, chloride content, Hotis test and CAMP test (2 hrs).

Module-III: Concept of clean milk production (5 hrs)

  • Hygienic milk production system; Cleaning and sanitation of udder, animal, utensils, equipments and dairy farm environment (2 hrs).
  • Microbiological quality of milk produced in organized and un-organized sector in India and comparative information in developed world (1 hrs).
  • Microflora of aseptically drawn milk and its natural antimicrobial systems - immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoproxidase (LP) system (2 hr).

Practice (1 hr)

  • Detection of sources of contamination: Air, water, utensils, equipment and personnel (1 hr).

Module-IV: Microbiological aspects of fluid milk processing (3 hrs)

  • Microbiological aspects of pasteurization, boiling, sterilization, ultra-high temperature (UHT) (1 hr)
  • Microbiological aspects of non-thermal (pulsed field) micro-filtration, bactofugation, standardization and homogenization (1 hr).
  • Bio-film formation during processing and their control measures (1 hr).

Practice (1 hr)

  • Detection of sources of contamination by line testing (1 hr).

Module-V: Public health aspects of fluid milk (4 hrs)

  • Microbial zoonotic diseases transmitted through fluid milk ( 1 hr).
  • Milk borne diseases -food infection, intoxication and toxi-infection caused E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella species, Campylobacter etc (2 hr).
  • Microbiological grading and legal standards of raw and processed milk (1 hr).

Practice (2.5 hrs)

  • Detection and estimation of coliforms: presumptive, rapid coliform and IMViC Test (1.5 hr).
  • Grading of processed/ market milk by total viable count, coliform and methylene blue reduction time (1 hr).

Suggested Readings:

  • Robinson, R.K. 2002. Dairy Microbiology Handbook - The Microbiology of Milk and Milk Products. 3rd ed. Wiley-Interscience, New York.
  • Marth E.H. & Steele J. 1998. Applied Dairy Microbiology- 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis, New York.
  • Jadav J.S., Grover S., Batish V.K., A comprehensive Dairy Microbiology, Metropolitan, New Delhi.

Online Resources: 

Session Plan

Session 1

Significance of specific groups of microorganisms in milk i.e. psychrotrophic, mesophilic, thermoduric and thermophillic bacteria - their morphological and biochemical characteristics and classification (1 hr).

Session 2

Significance of specific groups of microorganisms in milk i.e. psychrotrophic, mesophilic, thermoduric and thermophillic bacteria - their morphological and biochemical characteristics and classification (1 hr).

Session 3 (Practice)

Morphological examination of common dairy microorganisms (size and shape, arrangement and sporulation) (1 hr).

Session 4

Microbial contaminants in raw milk, their sources during various stages of production - milking, chilling, storage and transportation with special reference to psychrotrophic microorganisms (1 hr).

Session 5 (Practice)

Enumeration of psychrotrophic, thermophillic, thermoduric and spore forming bacteria in raw and market milk (1 hr).

Session 6

Microbiological changes in bulk refrigerated raw milk (1 hr).

Session 7 (Practice)

Session 8

Sources of contamination and microbial spoilage of raw milk (1 hr).

Session 9

Types of microbial spoilage - souring, curdling, bitty cream, proteolysis, lipolysis, abnormal flavors and discolouration (1 hr).

Session 10

Types of microbial spoilage - souring, curdling, bitty cream, proteolysis, lipolysis, abnormal flavors and discolouration (1 hr).

Session 11 (Practice)

Spoilage of milk caused by microorganisms: souring, sweet curdling, gassiness, lipolysis, ropiness, proteolysis and discolouration (2 hr).

Session 12

Mastitis milk - types of mastitis, causative micro-flora of mastitis, compositional and microbiological changes during mastitis infection, their processing and public health (1 hr).

Session 13 (Practice)

Detection of mastitis milks: pH, SLST, somatic cell count, chloride content, Hotis test and CAMP test (2 hr).

Session 14

Hygienic milk production system; Cleaning and sanitation of udder, animal, utensils, equipments and dairy farm environment (1 hr).

Session 15

Hygienic milk production system; Cleaning and sanitation of udder, animal, utensils, equipments and dairy farm environment (1 hr).

Session 16 (Practice)

Detection of sources of contamination: Air, water, utensils, equipment and personnel (1 hr).

Session 17

Microbiological quality of milk produced in organized and un-organized sector in India and comparative information in developed world (1 hr).

Session 18

Microflora of aseptically drawn milk and its natural antimicrobial systems - immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoproxidase (LP) system (1 hr).

Session 19

Microflora of aseptically drawn milk and its natural antimicrobial systems - immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoproxidase (LP) system (1 hr).

Session 20

Microbiological aspects of pasteurization, boiling, sterilization, ultra-high temperature (UHT) (1 hr).

Session 21

Microbiological aspects of non-thermal (pulsed field) micro-filteration, bactofugation, standardization and homogenization (1 hr).

Session 22 (Practice)

Detection of sources of contamination by line testing (1 hr).

Session 23

Bio-film formation during processing and their control measures (1 hr).

Session 24

Microbial zoonotic diseases transmitted through fluid milk (1 hr).

Session 25

Milk borne diseases -food infection, intoxication and toxi-infection caused E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella species, Campylobacter etc. (1 hr).

Session 26

Milk borne diseases -food infection, intoxication and toxi-infection caused E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella species, Campylobacter etc. (1 hr).

Session 27 (Practice)

Session 28

Microbiological grading and legal standards of raw and processed milk (1 hr).

Session 29 (Practice)

Grading of processed/ market milk by total viable count, coliform and methylene blue reduction time (1 hr).

Case Studies

Case Studies

Our Main Teachers

Dr. Prasanta Kumar Choudhury

Asst. Professor and Head, Dairy Technology
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Dr. Prasanta Kumar Choudhury is currently working as Assistant Professor and Head in the Department of Dairy Technology, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. He obtained his Ph. D degree from the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in the field of Dairy Microbiology. He has more than 9 years of experience at […]

Dr. Rajashree Jena is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Dairy Technology, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi Campus, Odisha. She has obtained her Ph. D degree from National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in the field of Dairy Microbiology. She has more than 6 years of research and teaching experience at […]